The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation in northwest India had a predominantly meat-heavy diet, comprising animals like pigs, cattle, buffalo and sheep, along with dairy products, a study published in Journal of Archaeological Science has shown.
The research offers insights into the food patterns of ancient South Asia by using lipid residue analysis, reports Scroll.in on Friday.
High proportions of cattle bones was also found, which may suggest a “cultural preference for beef consumption” across Indus populations, the study, titled, Lipid residues in pottery from the Indus Civilisation in northwest India, said.
The research offers insights into the food patterns of ancient South Asia by using lipid residue analysis to investigate what kinds of food items were used in ceramic vessels by people of the Indus Valley Civilisation settlements in northwest India, the present-day states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
It was led by Akshyeta Suryanarayan as part of her PhD at the University of Cambridge.
“Our study of lipid residues in Indus pottery shows a dominance of animal products in vessels, such as the meat of non-ruminant animals like pigs, ruminant animals like cattle or buffalo and sheep or goat, as well as dairy products,” Suryanarayan said, according to a press release by the Cambridge University.
The study of lipid residues involves the extraction and identification of fats and oils that have been absorbed into ancient ceramic vessels during their use in the past. It provides chemical evidence for milk, meat, and possible mixtures of products and/or plant consumption. Lipids are relatively less prone to degradation and have been discovered in pottery from archaeological contexts around the world.
On average, about 80% of the faunal assemblage from various Indus sites belong to domestic animal species, the study said. Out of these, cattle or buffalo are the most abundant – averaging between 50% and 60% of the animal bones found – with sheep and goat accounting for 10% of animal remains.
“The high proportions of cattle bones may suggest a cultural preference for beef consumption across Indus populations, supplemented by the consumption of mutton/lamb,” the research said.
Wild animal species like deer, antelope, gazelle, hares, birds, and riverine/marine resources were also found in small proportions, suggesting that “these diverse resources had a place in the Indus diet”, the study notes. “The pattern is similar at the sites in northwest India, where domestic and wild mammals, and smaller proportions of birds, reptiles, riverine fish, and molluscs were consumed,” it added.
There is also evidence of hares and birds being eaten, although little evidence was gathered on whether chicken was part of the diet of Indus people, according to the study.
Besides, “ledge-shouldered jars and large storage jars at Harappa have been linked to storage of liquids such as wine and oil,’’ it said.
Suryanarayanan told The Indian Express that the study was unique as it examined the contents of the ceramic vessels recovered from the Harappan sites. “Normally there would be access to seeds or plant remains,” she added. “But through the lipid residue analysis, we can confidently ascertain that consumption of beef, goat, sheep and pig was widespread, and especially of beef.”
The Indus Valley was home to one of the world’s first large civilisations. It began nearly 5,000 years ago in an area of modern-day Pakistan and North India. There were more than 1,400 towns and cities in the Indus Valley. The biggest were Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Around 80,000 people lived in these cities.
Marking the 50th Victory Day and Birth Centenary of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Liberation War Museum (LWM) is hosting a week-long Victory Carnival-2020 from Thursday.
Due to the ongoing global pandemic of COVID-19, this year LWM is opting for a virtual carnival and the programmes are scheduled to be broadcast on its official Facebook page, everyday at 8 pm from December 10 to December 16.
The carnival commenced on Thursday 8 pm with a discussion seminar and cultural event, marking the occasion of Human Rights Day.
The seminar was joined by Nasima Begum NDC, chairman of National Human Rights Commission as its chief guest. Liberation War Museum trustee Dr Sarwar Ali presented the inauguration speech, while Professor Dr Abu Mohammad Delowar Hossain, Department of History at Dhaka University presented a speech on the topic Bangabandhu's Vision: Human Rights and Peace.
Maqsood O' Dhaka, Baul Shahabul (Kushtia), Sovvota and the band and cultural troupe from the Rohingya community living in Bangladesh presented entertaining cultural performances at the event after the seminar.
A number of documentaries produced by LWM are scheduled to be projected on this carnival, from Friday, December 11 to Sunday, December 13, every day 8 pm at LWM Facebook page.
On Friday, the first of the documentaries titled Rakhbo Bohoman will be telecasted on LWM Facebook page. The documentary is directed by Fouzia Khan.
The second documentary, titled Bangladesh: Ekti Potakar Jonmo will be broadcasted on Saturday, directed by Prakash Roy.
On Sunday, two documentaries will be projected at the LWM Facebook page. The first one is titled Ekattor-er Podojatri, directed by Farid Ahmed - which will be followed by the second and final documentary of the carnival, Kan Pete Roi, directed by Mofidul Hoque.
On December 14, a commemorative discussion event marking the Martyred Intellectuals Day will take place at LWM Facebook page. LWM trustee Dr Sarwar Ali, Shahid Dr Azharul Hoque's wife Syed Salma Hoque, Shahid Sheikh Abdus Salam's daughter Sheikh Salma Nargis will join the seminar which will also pay tribute to Liberation War researcher Rashid Haider.
Cultural teams from Sunnydale School, Dhaka and M M Hoque Ideal School, Chapainawabganj will perform at the event alongside singer Rokaiya Hasina Nily.
On December 15, a cultural event will be telecast at the LWM page. Eminent thespian, cultural personality and LWM trustee and member-secretary Sara Zaker will present inauguration speech at the event.
The cultural event will feature musical performances by renowned singers Shaheen Samad, Bijon Kumar Mistry, Dalia Nowsheen, Priyanka Gope and musical group representing Kalyanpur Girls School and College, Dhaka. Rani Dayamayi High School, Rangamati will present dance performance at the event.
The programmes of the carnival's concluding day on December 16, which will be marking the 50th Victory Day of Bangladesh, will begin with hoisting the national flag at LWM premise at 10 am, followed by chorusing the national anthem by the children of Martyred Intellectuals of the Liberation War in 1971. The programme will be broadcast live at LWM Facebook page, directly from the Museum.
At 8 pm, a virtual concert titled Songs of Freedom will be telecasted featuring prominent bands including Maqsood O' Dhaka, Sovvota and the band, Spondon, Poraho, Parthibo and singer Aanchal with Shuvo.
LWM trustee, eminent thespian and former Minister of Cultural Affairs Asaduzzaman Noor is scheduled to present the inauguration speech at the event.
News agency United News of Bangladesh (UNB) is the Media Partner of the week-long carnival.
A piece of street art by elusive graffiti artist Banksy has appeared on a house in Bristol, reports BBC.
The creation entitled "Aachoo!!" on the side of a semi-detached house in Totterdown, depicts a woman in a headscarf sneezing and her dentures flying into the air.
Resident Dale Comley, said he saw a "bulky guy in a high vis jacket" early on Thursday who he thinks was Banksy.
The artist has since authenticated the work on his website and Instagram page.
It is understood the art, on a house on the corner of Vale Street and Park Street, was covered up before being revealed early on Thursday morning.
Mr Comley, 27, who lives on the street, said he was making coffee at around 07:00 GMT and looking out the window when he saw a man he thought "was a really keen scaffolder".
"I saw a man in a high vis jacket leaning against the railings opposite - he was looking at the wall the whole time," he said.
"Then about an hour later I looked out and saw loads of people in the street."
Vale Street, in the city's aptly named Totterdown suburb, is one of the steepest streets in the country.
Each year the 22-degree gradient slope attracts crowds with its Easter Sunday egg rolling contest.
The artwork, which has appeared at the bottom of Vale Street, has attracted much attention locally.
Tom, 34, said he changed his jogging route so he could come and admire the artwork.
"I saw people talking about it on Twitter, I think it's pretty good - it's certainly topical," he said.
Jason Bartlett, 47, who grew up nearby, said he did not think Banksy had created work in the area before.
He said: "I heard it on the news and I thought I've got to go and take a look. I've always been a big fan of his.
"It's going to get interesting for whoever owns the house I suppose."
Fred Loosemore, 28, a furniture maker who rented a room in the property until recently, told the Press Association he was going to screw a piece of clear acrylic over the artwork to protect it.
"We wanted to come up because people will deface it, and luckily we've got a workshop and a massive piece of acrylic we've got left over," he said.
"The artwork is so nice. It's so relevant, isn't it?."
In October, a Banksy artwork depicting a girl hula-hooping near a real bicycle with its back wheel missing appeared in Nottingham.
While in July, a pandemic-inspired piece by Banksy encouraging people to wear face masks was stencilled on a Tube train in London.
In September, Art Attack presenter Neil Buchanan dismissed rumours Banksy was his secret alias.
Banksy began spray-painting trains and walls in his home city of Bristol in the 1990s, and before long was leaving his artistic mark all over the world.
He is famed for poking fun at big companies and sending political messages through his work.
No. For a couple reasons, masks and social distancing will still be recommended for some time after people are vaccinated.
To start, the first coronavirus vaccines require two shots; Pfizer’s second dose comes three weeks after the first and Moderna’s comes after four weeks. And the effect of vaccinations generally aren't immediate.
People are expected to get some level of protection within a couple of weeks after the first shot. But full protection may not happen until a couple weeks after the second shot.
It's also not yet known whether the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines protect people from infection entirely, or just from symptoms. That means vaccinated people might still be able to get infected and pass the virus on, although it would likely be at a much lower rate, said Deborah Fuller, a vaccine expert at the University of Washington.
And even once vaccine supplies start ramping up, getting hundreds of millions shots into people's arms is expected to take months.
Fuller also noted vaccine testing is just starting in children, who won’t be able to get shots until study data indicates they're safe and effective for them as well.
Moncef Slaoui, head of the U.S. vaccine development effort, has estimated the country could reach herd immunity as early as May, based on the effectiveness of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. That's assuming there are no problems meeting manufacturers' supply estimates, and enough people step forward to be vaccinated.
The COVID19 pandemic has affected many countries around the world including Bangladesh. But the mass people can’t stay at home every day due to maintaining their lives and livelihood. Every morning millions of people come out on the road and commute to their respective destinations. Not every individual owns personal transport. Many people use ridesharing serves which are not free from risk at all. Read this article to know some tips about how to use the ridesharing vehicles safely during the COVID19 pandemic.
If you’re experiencing any symptoms of COVID19, moving around would be completely irresponsible. And, you may face public annoyance for doing so. Therefore, when you are feeling sick, stay at home, call your doctor, and get tested.
During the pandemic situation, every person around you can be a possible bearer of Coronavirus. So, it would be wise, if you maintain self-protective measures, like wearing masks, hand gloves, face shields, etc. And, don’t forget to carry a 60-70 percent alcohol-based hand sanitizer to disinfect your hands frequently after touching things any part of the ride-sharing vehicle.
When a person talks, moisture comes out of the mouth which may contain the virus. If you sit beside the driver, the moisture emitted from his mouth may heat on your face during conversation. Thus, the possible virus droplets may enter your body.
One of the key safety measures from Coronavirus contraction in a ridesharing vehicle is to maintain physical distance from the driver. It is recommended, not to ride on the front seat of the ride-sharing vehicle. Try to sit on the back-seat behind the driver.
The coronavirus can stay alive on hard surfaces for several days. Bear some clean tissues in your bag. Wipe out the car handle properly from inside to outside, before touching it.
And be cautious about touching the common vehicle touch points inside the vehicle, like seat cover, seat belts, window winder, door handle, etc. After riding inside the vehicle, clean the inside door-handles, seat belt, seat cover, and rear window winders with a clean tissue.
Before riding on a ridesharing motorbike, stay cautious about the common touchable places like the seat and helmet. Wipe out the helmet with a clean tissue before wearing it. Then dispose of the used tissues properly.
While you sit on a ridesharing vehicle, beware of touching here and there. The Coronavirus can cling to different inner parts of the car and survive for days. Make sure that you are keeping your both hands to yourself. When you are obliged to touch things, use a clean tissue to wipe it properly. And disinfect your hands immediately after touching.
Allow fresh natural air circulation instead of running the air-cooler inside the ridesharing vehicle. Lower the window shield up to some inches to let the fresh air enter the vehicle.
Corona Virus can survive on paper for days. The paper money you exchange can contain viruses. Try to use the electronic cash payment systems (credit card, Visa Card, debit card, etc) or Mobile Financial services (such as bKash, Nagad, Ukash, Rocket, etc) to pay the bill at the end of your journey.
You can flow the following measures to you keep both yourself and passengers safe from COVID19:
- Avoid driving a ridesharing vehicle, if you are sick.
- Wash your hands with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (60% alcohol) frequently.
- Wear a face mask, when a passenger enters your vehicle.
- Don’t touch your eyes, nose, or parts of the mouth with dirty hands.
- Wear disposable gloves while handling cash money.
- Ask the passengers not to use the front seat of your vehicle and maintain physical distance.
- Ask the passengers to wear a face mask.
- Avoid handling cash money, if possible. And, encourage the passengers to pay through an electronic payment system or MFS.
- Keep disposable face masks and disposable gloves for each passenger customer. And, dispose of those elements properly after each trip.
- Keep tissues and alcohol-based (60-70%) hand sanitizer available for the passengers.
- Wash the vehicle properly on a routine basis
- Disinfect your vehicle properly using sanitizers after dropping off passengers
- Properly clean and disinfect the commonly touchable surfaces of your vehicle.
- Wear disposable face masks and hand gloves while cleaning and dispose of them properly.