Dhaka, July 7 (UNB) - Antibiotics can leave the lung vulnerable to flu viruses, leading to significantly worse infections and symptoms, according to a study, reports The Indian Exress.
The research, published in the journal Cell Reports, discovered that signals from gut bacteria help to maintain a first line of defence in the lining of the lung.
When mice with healthy gut bacteria were infected with the flu, around 80 per cent of them survived. However, only a third survived if they were given antibiotics before being infected.
“We found that antibiotics can wipe out early flu resistance, adding further evidence that they should not be taken or prescribed lightly,” Andreas Wack, who led the research at Francis Crick Institute in the UK.
“Inappropriate use not only promotes antibiotic resistance and kills helpful gut bacteria, but may also leave us more vulnerable to viruses. This could be relevant not only in humans but also livestock animals, as many farms around the world use antibiotics prophylactically,” Wack said.
The study found that type I interferon signalling, which is known to regulate immune responses, was key to early defence.
Among the genes switched on by interferon is a mouse gene, Mx1, which is the equivalent of the human MxA gene. This antiviral gene produces proteins that can interfere with influenza virus replication.
Although often studied in immune cells, researchers found that microbiota-driven interferon signals also keep antiviral genes in the lung lining active, preventing the virus from gaining a foothold.
“We were surprised to discover that the cells lining the lung, rather than immune cells, were responsible for early flu resistance induced by microbiota,” Wack said.
“Previous studies have focused on immune cells, but we found that the lining cells are more important for the crucial early stages of infection,” he said.
“They are the only place that the virus can multiply, so they are the key battleground in the fight against flu. Gut bacteria send a signal that keeps the cells lining the lung prepared, preventing the virus from multiplying so quickly,” he added.
To test whether the protective effect was related to gut bacteria rather than local processes in the lung, the researchers treated mice with antibiotics and then repopulated their gut bacteria through faecal transplant.
This restored interferon signalling and associated flu resistance, suggesting that gut bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining defences.
“Taken together, our findings show that gut bacteria help to keep non-immune cells elsewhere in the body prepared for attack,” Wack said.
“They are better protected from flu because antiviral genes are already switched on when the virus arrives. So when the virus infects a prepared organism, it has almost lost before the battle starts,” he said.
“By contrast, without gut bacteria, the antiviral genes won’t come on until the immune response kicks in. This is sometimes too late as the virus has already multiplied many times, so a massive, damaging immune response is inevitable,” he added.
Dhaka, July 7 (UNB) - A day after Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the government’s plan to turn 17 ‘iconic’ tourist sites into world-class destinations, UNESCO announced Jaipur City in Rajasthan as a World Heritage Site in India, reports The Indian Express.
Sharing the tweet, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said: “Jaipur is a city associated with culture and valour. Elegant and energetic, Jaipur’s hospitality draws people from all over. Glad that this city has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site by @UNESCO.”
Popularly known as the ‘Pink City’, Jaipur is a famous tourist destination known for its vibrant culture, history and architectural marvels. Some of the well-known tourist destinations in the city include Amber Palace, Jantar Mantar, City Palace and Hawa Mahal.
Some other destinations that made it to the list include Dilmun Burial Mounds, Bahrain; Budj Bim Cultural Landscape, Australia; Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City, China; Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto, Indonesia; Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group: Mounded Tombs of Ancient Japan, Japan, among others.
Dhaka, July 7 (UNB)- Around this time in July — when our ever-shortening spring weather takes a sharp right into the damp, hot depths of summer — coffee drinkers are confronted with a morning-altering decision: switch to iced coffee to combat the oppressive weather, or commit to hot coffee as a kind of bold, unnecessarily masochistic act?
Those who prefer their summer over ice have also grown accustomed to another question: regular or cold brew?
If you’re unfamiliar with the difference, think of cold brew as traditional iced coffee’s unhurried fraternal twin. Cold brew can’t go a day without a long, luxurious bath, while iced coffee can barely swing a quick shower; cold brew has read “The Goldfinch” (and is planning on a reread before the movie is released later this summer), but iced coffee unfortunately never had the time — what with work and the kids — though it has seen the trailer on mute.
Once found primarily in the trendiest coffee shops and kitchens of adventurous home baristas, cold brew iced coffee has become a year-round staple. Chains like Starbucks and Dunkin’ have added the drink to their permanent menus. Cold brew makers like Rise, High Brew, La Colombe stock cans in major grocery stores. And at-home brewing kit companies have helped popularize DIY methods.
Rich Nieto, the owner of Sweetleaf Coffee Roasters in the Brooklyn neighbourhood of Greenpoint, said that cold brew has become so popular in recent years that it now outsells iced coffee in all but one of the company’s four locations. Still, even the most passionate cold-coffee drinkers have questions about their chosen beverage: Is there really less acid in cold brew? Will drinking it in the afternoon keep me up at night? Should I just make it at home? The good news is, we have answers.
What’s the difference between cold brew and iced coffee?
Both drinks are made from the same pair of magical, everyday ingredients — they’re just combined at different temperatures. Water heated to around 200 degrees Fahrenheit (about 93 degrees Celsius) and poured over the grounds will extract all of coffee’s most pleasurable essences in a matter of minutes. When cooled and poured over ice, you have a standard iced coffee. If the brewing water is room temperature, it must canoodle with the coffee grounds for much longer, anywhere from 12 to 24 hours, to produce a cup of joe worth sipping, but the resulting beverage contains coffee’s most sought after qualities — flavor and caffeine — without the bitterness found in one brewed hot.
Does cold brew coffee really have less acid?
My husband recently had an endoscopy that revealed an anomalous patch of tissue on the wall of his oesophagus which had been exacerbating his acid reflux. His doctor informed us both that he should try to cut down on spicy food, alcohol and coffee. The first category would be easy, he assured me. The second? Achievable. But the third? Utterly impossible.
Dr Rabia A. De Latour, a gastroenterologist and assistant professor of medicine at NYU Langone Health, said that it was a common sentiment, and that people who are “exquisitely sensitive” to caffeinated or acidic foods, and those suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, would benefit from switching to cold brew if they cannot eliminate caffeine from their morning routine. “We recommend they cut out coffee completely,” said De Latour. But for everyone else, the difference between cold brew and iced coffee is negligible.
“I’ve seen this statistic a lot,” she said in reference to an oft-quoted claim that cold brew is 70% less acidic than regular iced coffee. “But I don’t see any scientific data to support this claim,” directing me to a study that shows “comparable” pH values from cold- and hot-brew samples, “ranging from 4.85 to 5.13.” For comparison’s sake, the stomach’s pH hovers somewhere between 1.5 and 3.5.
Does cold-brewed coffee have more caffeine?
Wading through the world of cold brew coffee can be a brutal game of trial and error. Thanks to the wide range of brewing methods, the difference in caffeine content among cold brews is considerably harder to predict that the amount of acid. After brewing for 20 hours, 16 ounces of cold brew at Starbucks contains 200 milligrams of caffeine (12 milligrams per ounce). While that’s about 20% higher than their iced coffee, which clocks in at 165 milligrams (10 milligrams per ounce), it’s considerably lower than the same amount of hot coffee, which has 310 milligrams (20 milligrams per ounce). Coffee from Dunkin’ reports similar numbers, with 10.8 milligrams in every ounce of cold brew.
But when you wade into more speciality waters, especially among prepackaged brands, the caffeine content is far from predictable. Canned cold brew brands Rise and High Brew has nearly identical packaging, but grabbing the wrong one could cost you. Rise’s original flavour contains 180 milligrams in its 7-ounce can (25 milligrams per ounce), which is anywhere from 30-50 milligrams more caffeine than what’s found in High Brew’s 8-ounce can. Stumptown, a roaster based in Portland, Oregon, sells cold brew in 10.5-ounce bottles that contain a whopping 29.4 milligrams of caffeine per ounce. To a caffeine addict like myself, that number sounds lovely. But to the uninitiated looking to give the cold brew a shot, it’s a recipe for disaster.
“A lot of people will not tolerate that amount of caffeine,” De Latour said. “Some people’s GERD is worsened by coffee because of the caffeine content and its impact on the sphincter muscles,” adding that high amounts found in some cold brews can make people feel quite sick, with symptoms like jitters, peristalsis of the bowels, diarrhoea, or even increased anxiety and stress. She then reminded me that it is, after all, a stimulant.
So that leaves us with cold brew prepared at home, a great option for those looking for more control when it comes to caffeine and acidity. The New York Times’ own recipe calls for just 12 hours of brewing. Similar recipes can be found across the internet, and all are easy to adjust in order to find the balance that works for your own stomach and pocketbook. A happy medium can be found in store-bought cold brew concentrates. These brews are meant to be diluted, so if you find it too strong, just add water or milk. Not strong enough? You get the idea.
In January, I approached the counter of Starbucks at an airport after waiting alongside an amorphous line of fellow uncaffeinated travellers for half an hour and, relieved to have made it there without collapsing, ordered a large cold brew iced coffee. I even used “venti” — the Italian word for 20, as in the number of ounces it contains — when requesting the large size, even though Italians use the metric system. But my commitment to the chain’s conceptually unsound ordering language did not bear fruit, as I was told by the barista that they had just run out of the cold brew. All they had left was a standard iced coffee, meaning hot brew served over ice. Out of other options and surrounded by more long lines, I grudgingly accepted. It wasn’t cold brew, but it was coffee. And that’s usually enough.
Dhaka, July 6 (UNB) - A two-week long solo art exhibition of young artist Farzana Rahman Bobby titled ‘The Soul of The Soil’ has kicked off at Gallery Shilpangan in the capital’s Dhanmondi area.
Renowned artist Monirul Islam inaugurated the exhibition on the gallery premises on Friday evening while artist and critic Javed Jalil was present as a special guest.
Farzana approaches nature to harness its spirit rather than expressing her fidelity to the visible markers while her ecosystem is devoid of easily recognisable forms.
The artist has so far participated in a number of group exhibitions, including 21st National Art Exhibition, ‘Life 2’ at Gallery Cosmos-2, 16th Asian Art Biennale, 19th Young Artist Art Exhibition, group printmaking exhibition ‘Amader Kotha’ organised by Shako.
She also took part in workshops under renowned artist Biren Shome, Alamgir Haque, internationally acclaimed Japanese artist Toshihisa Fudezuka, and Indian artists -Nirmalendu Das and Pinaki Barua.
The exhibition will remain open from 3pm to 8pm every day till July 18.
London, Jul 6 (AP/UNB) — British artist Leon Kossoff, who painted his home city of London in all its moody, rough-edged glory, has died. He was 92.
Annely Juda Fine Art, which represents Kossoff, said he died Thursday after a short illness. Another of the artist's galleries, LA Louver in Los Angeles, also confirmed his death.
Born in London in 1926 to Russian Jewish immigrants, Kossoff grew up in the city's tough East End and served in the army during World War II before studying at St. Martin's school of art.
He is considered a member of the "School of London" group of post-war artists — alongside Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud and Frank Auerbach — who pursued careers in figurative painting regardless of changing artistic fashions.
Inspired by the Old Masters, Kossoff painted portraits of friends and family, but is best known for his urban landscapes of a gritty, war-scarred London. Streets, churches, swimming pools, subway stations and railway bridges were all rendered in dark-hued, thickly layered oil paint. Kossoff would often paint all day and then scrape off most of it in frustration, repeating the process day after day.
Annely Juda said in a statement that Kossoff "saw beauty in everything and everybody."
"His death robs us of one of Britain's greatest painters, but his work reminds us of the continuing potency of painting to comprehend the world in which we live," the gallery said.
Though never as famous as Bacon or Freud, Kossoff's works have sold for six and seven figures. A 1971 painting of London's Willesden Junction railway interchange fetched 1.39 million pounds ($1.74 million) at a Christie's auction last year.
Kossoff represented Britain at the 1995 Venice Biennale, and had a major show the following year at London's Tate gallery. His work has been shown around the world, including at London's National Gallery and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. He was an honorary foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
Funeral details were not immediately available.