Dhaka, Jun 30 (UNB) - A study has found that the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among schoolgirls in Britain has led to plummeting cervical cancer risk. All schoolgirls in Britain have been offered the HPV vaccine at the age of 12 or 13 since 2008 and later this year, the programme will be extended to boys of the same age, reports the Indian Express.
The study, published in The Lancet medical journal looked at screening programmes involving 60 million people in 14 countries and found levels of the two strands of HPV virus – that are mainly responsible for the cancer – fell 83 per cent in girls aged 13 to 19 after five to eight years of vaccination, and 66 per cent in women aged 20 to 24. The researchers, led by Laval University in Canada, said that if the number of people having the vaccination remains high, the cancer could soon be eliminated.
Study leader Professor Marc Brisson said, ‘What we are working on now is trying to determine when elimination will occur. We don’t have a precise date but we’re trying to determine when it will occur.’
He added that Australian scientists have estimated they could wipe out cervical cancer in their country – which is similar to UK – within a few decades.
Dr David Mesher, of Public Health England, added, ‘There will be a time in the future where we will see very low rates of cervical cancer.’
Around 3,200 British women are diagnosed with the disease every year, while almost 1,000 die from it annually.
The research team also looked at the impact of the vaccination programme on levels of abnormal cells and cervical lesions, known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), which can be early warning signs of cervical cancer.
The higher the CIN grade, the higher the risk of developing invasive cancer.
The researchers found a 51 per cent reduction in CIN2+ lesions – one of the most serious forms – five to nine years after vaccination.
Professor Brisson added, ‘Because of our finding, we believe the World Health Organisation call for action to eliminate cervical cancer may be possible in many countries if sufficient vaccination coverage can be achieved.’
Robert Music, chief executive at UK’s Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust, said, “This is truly exciting news, which clearly shows the impact of the HPV vaccine in protecting the cervical health of future generations. We’re lucky to have the HPV vaccination programme here in the UK and this study supports the imminent roll-out of the gender-neutral HPV vaccine.”
But he added, “This study also shows the urgent need for all countries without a vaccination programme to be supported in establishing one.”
Dhaka, Jun 30 (UNB) - Preterm birth can change an infant’s brain activity while they are asleep and also affects future brain health, a study has found, reports the Indian Express.
Researchers at QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute in Australia analysed brain activity data collected from 94 infants from Helsinki in Finland.
The study group comprised 42 infants who had been born extremely premature at 27 weeks, and a control group of 52 infants who had been born at full term.
“Quality of sleep is a vital indicator of brain health, particularly in newborn infants, and our study looked at the brain process supporting distinct sleep patterns in preterm and full-term babies when measured about two weeks after the full term due date,” said Dr Luca Cocchi, senior author and head of QIMR Berghofer’s Clinical Brain Networks team.
“We found babies born at full term had marked reorganization of brain activity during different states of sleep, while it wasn’t as distinct in very premature babies,” he said.
“Our study also indicated that the differences in neural sleep activity at 42 weeks could predict a child’s ability to use visual information to solve problems at two years of age,” Cocchi said.
He said that like other behaviours, good sleep relies upon the proper organisation of dynamic patterns of brain activity during different sleep states.
For the study, published in the journal Nature Communications, the researchers used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and other tools to map interactions between different brain regions when babies were in active sleep and quiet sleep.
“These two stages are key components of a newborn’s sleep-wake cycle, and gradually transform with age into cycles of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep states such as deep sleep,” said Dr James Roberts, a co-author of the study and head of QIMR Berghofer’s Brain Modelling Group.
“These two stages are key components of a newborn’s sleep-wake cycle, and gradually transform with age into cycles of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep states such as deep sleep,” he said.
“These tools have been previously used to describe complex systems such as the acoustics of musical instruments, but we’ve been able to adapt it to brain waves in sleeping babies,” Roberts added.
Dhaka, June 29 (UNB)- People should be focusing on how to prevent harmful microbes from spreading in their homes rather than cleaning the bits that look "dirty", a Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH) report says.
Washing hands, cloths and surfaces at the right time is the key to good hygiene - but one in four people think it is not important, it warns, reports BBC.
Getting it right can reduce infections and antibiotic resistance.
And there is no such thing as being "too clean".
According to the RSPH report, there is confusion among the public about the difference between dirt, germs, cleanliness and hygiene.
In a survey of 2,000 people, 23% thought children needed to be exposed to harmful germs to build up their immune systems.
But experts behind the report said this was "a potentially harmful belief" which could lead to exposure to some dangerous infections.
Instead, they said people should concentrate on cleaning specific places at specific times, even if they look clean, to stop "bad" microbes spreading.
What are the hot spots for hygiene?
-preparing and handling food
-eating with fingers
-after using the toilet
-when people are coughing, sneezing and blowing their nose
-handling and washing "dirty" household cloths and clothing
-caring for pets
-handling and taking out the rubbish
-caring for a family member with an infection
Cleaning of hands is particularly important after handling food, using the toilet, coughing, sneezing, handling pets and caring for those who are sick, the report says.
Cleaning kitchen surfaces and chopping boards is vital after preparing raw foods such as meat and poultry, or before preparing food such as sandwiches and snacks.
And cleaning dishcloths and scrubbing brushes is recommended after they have been used to clean a contaminated surface.
Floors and furniture may look dirty, but they usually contain microbes which are not much of a health risk.
How does cleaning remove bacteria?
Washing surfaces and utensils with warm, soapy water removes the bacteria, allowing it to be washed down the drain.
But to kill the bacteria completely, scalding water over 70C, is needed - and for some time, the Food Standards Agency says.
What products to use?
Most fall into three categories, which each do something different.
- Detergents : clean the surface and remove grease, but they do not kill bacteria.
- Disinfectants : kill bacteria but do not work effectively on a surface covered in grease or visible dirt.
- Sanitisers : can be used to both clean and disinfect. First use the sanitiser to clean the surface, removing any dirt, food and grease then apply to the clean surface to disinfect
It is important to read the instructions carefully, experts say.
Instead of using a cloth to clean surfaces after food preparation, try using paper towels instead. This saves the kitchen cloth from becoming contaminated.
What do experts say?
Prof Sally Bloomfield, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said the public should know the difference between hygiene and cleanliness.
"Whereas cleaning means removing dirt and microbes, hygiene means cleaning in the places and times that matter - in the right way - to break the chain of infection whilst preparing food, using the toilet, caring for pets etc."
Prof Lisa Ackerley, food hygiene expert and trustee at Royal Society for Public Health, said: "Getting outdoors and playing with friends, family and pets is great for exposure to 'good bacteria' and building a healthy microbiome, but it's also crucial that the public don't get the wrong end of the stick. This doesn't need to get in the way of good hygiene.
"Targeted hygiene undertaken at the crucial times and places is a way of preventing infection that is cheap on time and low effort, and still exposes you to all the 'good bacteria' your body benefits from."
She added: "Good hygiene in the home and everyday life helps to reduce infections, is vitally important to protecting our children and reducing pressure on the NHS, and has a huge role to play in the battle against antibiotic resistance."
Dhaka, June 29 (UNB) - The amount of sugar in baby food should be restricted and parents should give their young children more vegetables to stop them developing a sweet tooth, a report from child health experts says, reports BBC.
It warns that even baby food marked "no added sugar" often contains sugars from honey or fruit juice.
Parents should offer bitter flavours too, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health recommends.
This will guard against tooth decay, poor diet and obesity.
The recommendation is one of many included in a report on how to improve the health of children in the UK.
Reducing child obesity is a key priority in all parts of the UK, with England and Scotland committing to halving rates by 2030.
Targeting food high in sugar and fat is an important part of that aim, following the introduction of a tax on sugary drinks in England in 2018.
The report says the government should introduce mandatory limits on the amount of free sugar in baby foods.
Many can contain high levels of sugar added by the manufacturer or present in syrups and fruit juices, it says, despite labels suggesting otherwise.
The report says infants should not be given sugary drinks. Instead, they should have sugar in a natural form, such as whole fresh fruit, milk or unsweetened dairy products.
Prof Mary Fewtrell, nutrition lead for the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, said products for weaning babies often contained a high proportion of fruit or sweet-tasting vegetables.
"Pureed or liquid baby foods packaged in pouches also often have a high energy density and a high proportion of sugar," she said.
"If sucked from the pouch, the baby also misses out on the opportunity to learn about eating from a spoon or feeding himself.
"Baby foods can be labelled 'no added sugar' if the sugar comes from fruit - but all sugars have the same effects on the teeth and on metabolism."
'Broccoli and spinach'
She said babies had a preference for sweet tastes but parents should not reinforce that.
"Babies are very willing to try different flavours, if they're given the chance," Prof Fewtrell said, "and it's important that they're introduced to a variety of flavours, including more bitter tasting foods such as broccoli and spinach, from a young age."
Prof Fewtrell also said parents should be educated on the impact of sugar.
"Excess sugar is one of the leading causes of tooth decay, which is the most common oral disease in children, affecting nearly a quarter (23%) of five-year-olds."
She added that sugar intake also contributed to children becoming overweight and obese.
The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition recommends sugar provides no more than 5% of daily total energy intake for those aged two and over, and even less for children under two.
But results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey suggest the average daily intake for the children between one-and-a-half and three years is 11.3% - more than double the recommended amount.
A review of food and drinks aimed at young children, by Public Health England, found that processed dried fruit products contained the highest amount of sugar - but were often marketed as healthy snacks.
The products, which contain fruit juices, purees and concentrates, making them high in free sugars, should not be sold as suitable snacks for children, PHE said.
Dhaka, June 28 (UNB) - Well! Who doesn't want a clear, bright and glowing skin? But there are times when some people get a lot of black spots on their skin. This could be due to sun damage, blackheads, razor bumps, skin ageing, acne and over aggressive facial exfoliation. In order to avoid this, people spend lots of money on skin care creams, face wash or moisturizers which are available in the market. Nonetheless these products are loaded with chemicals. They could have many side effects as well like sudden breakouts, dryness or even pimples or acne. Fortunately, some home remedies can help you get rid of those black spots and give your skin a smooth and glowing texture, reports NDTV.
Some home remedies can help you rid of those black spots and give your skin a smooth and glowing texture.
Amazing home remedies to get rid of black spots on your face:
1. Papaya mask
Papaya contains papain which is beneficial for skin lightening and renewal. You can make a face mask by mashing the papaya fruit to make a smooth paste and add a tablespoon of honey. In case of dry skin then milk cream will work together with honey and papaya. For oily skin you could add half a tablespoon of fresh lemon juice. Use this face mask regularly. Lemon has vitamin C which reduces the appearance of brown or dark spots and patches. Milk cream can better the complexion as they contain a good amount of lactic acid. Milk cream and honey both moisturize and soothe the skin.
2. Aloe vera mask
You can mix aloe vera gel, vitamin E oil, and lemon juice to make a creamy paste. Apply this on your face and let the mask stay till it dries. Wash it with lukewarm water after the mask dries. Repeat it daily to get the desired result. Vitamin E oil helps in skin rejuvenation and is beneficial for depigmentation. Lemon juice exfoliates the skin and removes dead skin cells, clearing up blocked pores and removing blackheads. Aloe vera helps moisturizes your skin, keeping it hydrated, rejuvenated and glowing.
3. Drink plenty of water
Simply drinking plenty of water can do wonders for your skin. It helps in cleansing the body by flushing out all the toxins. Drinking adequate water all day long is the most natural way of developing a clear, smooth and glowing skin. Also, try to avoid the consumption of alcohol, carbonated and sugary beverages. Instead include fruits and vegetables which are high water content in your diet. Also, washing your face at least 2 times can be helpful. It will help remove dust and dirt from your face.
Buttermilk is rich in lactic acid which helps in removing dead skin and blackheads from your face. It also helps lighten your dark spots. You can apply buttermilk directly on dark spots with the help of cotton and leave it till it dries. Wash your face with clean water and see the results.
5. Lemon and yoghurt mask
We all know that lemons are beneficial for your skin. The vitamin C and the citric acid present in lemons make it a perfect bleaching agent which helps in lightening the dark spots. Mixing yoghurt with lemon also helps in giving a smooth and glowing texture to your skin. You can even add sugar to your face mask as it has exfoliating properties which can be used as a scrub to remove the dead skin and dirt from your face.