Macron said under the new measures, starting on Friday, people would only be allowed to leave home for essential work or medical reasons.
Non-essential businesses, such as restaurants and bars, will close, but schools and factories will remain open.
Covid daily deaths in France are at the highest level since April.
On Tuesday, 33,000 new cases were confirmed.
Macron said the country risked being "overwhelmed by a second wave that no doubt will be harder than the first".
The president said that people would need to fill in a form to justify leaving their homes, as was required in the initial lockdown in March.
Europe,US facing new round of shutdowns amid virus surge