Pamplona, Jul 9 (AP/UNB) — Health authorities in northern Spain's Pamplona say two people were injured in Tuesday's speedy bull run, although there were no gorings, unlike in previous days.
The race along the 930-yard (850-meter) cobbled-street course to the bullring lasted just over 2 minutes, the fastest so far this year.
Four people — two Americans and two Spaniards — have been gored since the daily races started on Sunday.
Tomás Belzunegui, deputy director of the regional hospital, says that a man who fractured his ankle badly on Tuesday will likely remain hospitalized but that a runner who hit his head against the floor will likely be discharged soon.
The nine-day San Fermin fiesta attracts revelers from around the world who test their bravery and speed dashing through the streets with six fighting bulls.
Emeryville, Jul 9 (AP/UNB) — Uma Valeti slices into a pan-fried chicken cutlet in the kitchen of his startup, Memphis Meats. He sniffs the tender morsel on his fork before taking a bite. He chews slowly, absorbing the taste.
"Our chicken is chicken ... you've got to taste it to believe it," Valeti says.
This is no ordinary piece of poultry. No chicken was raised or slaughtered to harvest the meat. It was produced in a laboratory by extracting cells from a chicken and feeding them in a nutrient broth until the cell culture grew into raw meat.
Memphis Meats, based in Emeryville, California, is one of a growing number of startups worldwide that are making cell-based or cultured meat. They want to offer an alternative to traditional meat production that they say is damaging the environment and causing unnecessary harm to animals, but they are far from becoming mainstream and face pushback from livestock producers.
"You are ultimately going to continue the choice of eating meat for many generations to come without putting undue stress on the planet," said Valeti, a former cardiologist who co-founded Memphis Meats in 2015 after seeing the power of stem cells to treat disease.
The company, which also has produced cell-grown beef and duck, has attracted investments from food giants Cargill and Tyson Foods as well as billionaires Richard Branson and Bill Gates.
A report released in June by consulting firm A.T. Kearney predicts that by 2040, cultured meat will make up 35 percent of meat consumed worldwide, while plant-based alternatives will compose 25 percent.
"The large-scale livestock industry is viewed by many as an unnecessary evil," the report says. "With the advantages of novel vegan meat replacements and cultured meat over conventionally produced meat, it is only a matter of time before meat replacements capture a substantial market share."
But first cultured meat must overcome significant challenges, including bringing down the exorbitant cost of production, showing regulators it's safe and enticing consumers to take a bite.
"We're a long way off from becoming a commercial reality because there are many hurdles we have to tackle," said Ricardo San Martin, research director of the alternative meat program at the University of California, Berkeley. "We don't know if consumers are going to buy this or not."
As global demand for meat grows, supporters say cell-based protein is more sustainable than traditional meat because it doesn't require the land, water and crops needed to raise livestock — a major source of greenhouse gas emissions.
Many consumers would love to eat meat that doesn't require killing animals, said Brian Spears, who founded a San Francisco startup called New Age Meats that served its cell-based pork sausages to curious foodies at a tasting last September.
"People want meat. They don't want slaughter," Spears said. "So we make slaughter-free meat, and we know there's a massive market for people that want delicious meat that doesn't require animal slaughter."
Finless Foods, another startup in Emeryville, is making cultured fish and seafood. It's produced cell-based versions of salmon, carp and sea bass, and it's working on bluefin tuna, a popular species that is overfished and contains high levels of mercury. The company has invited guests to sample its cell-based fish cakes.
"The ocean is a very fragile ecosystem, and we are really driving it to the brink of collapse," CEO Michael Selden said. "By moving human consumption of seafood out of the ocean and onto land and creating it in this cleaner way, we can basically do something that's better for everybody."
The emerging industry moved a step closer to market in March when the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration announced plans to jointly oversee the production and labeling of cell-based meat.
Food-safety advocates will be watching to ensure the agencies provide rigorous oversight and protect people from bacterial contamination and other health threats, said Jayden Hanson, policy director at the nonprofit Center for Food Safety.
"It will be important for the public that this be well regulated," Hanson said. "Do these really solve the environmental problem? Do they really solve the animal welfare problem? That needs to be part of the review as well."
If cultured-meat companies use genetically modified cells, they would face even greater scrutiny from consumers and government regulators, Hanson said.
Cell-based meat companies also face resistance from U.S. livestock producers, who have been lobbying states to restrict the "meat" label to food products derived from slaughtered animals and have been raising questions about the safety, cost and environmental effect of cultured meat.
"There's still many, many unknowns about these cell-based products," said Eric Mittenthal, vice president for sustainability at the North American Meat Institute. "We really don't know if it's something consumers will accept from a taste perspective. We don't know if it's going to be affordable."
Uma Valeti at Memphis Meats said he wants to help educate people about the benefits of cell-based meats and eventually open up its production facility to show people how its meat is made.
The company is focused on reducing the cost of cultured meat and producing larger quantities. A plate of chicken that used to cost tens of thousands of dollars to produce can now be made for less than $100, Valeti said.
Memphis Meats hopes to sell its cell-based meat within the next two years, starting with restaurants, then moving into grocery stores, assuming it passes USDA and FDA inspections.
"We're actually preserving the choice of eating meat for people," Valeti said. "Instead of saying, 'Give up eating meat or eat a meat alternative,' we're saying continue eating the meat that you love."
Dhaka, Jul 8 (UNB) - A strain of the common cold virus can infect and kill bladder cancer cells, a small study suggests, reports the BBC.
All signs of the disease disappeared in one patient, and in 14 others there was evidence that cancer cells had died.
University of Surrey researchers said the virus could "help revolutionise treatment" for the cancer and reduce the risk of it recurring.
A bladder cancer charity called the study "very exciting" if larger studies confirmed the findings.
Non-muscle invasive bladder is the 10th most common cancer in the UK, with around 10,000 new cases each year.
Current treatments for this type of bladder cancer are invasive or can cause serious, toxic side effects.
And constant, costly monitoring is needed to check that the cancer has not returned after treatment.
'Join the party'
In this study, 15 patients with the disease were given the cancer-killing coxsackievirus (CVA21) through a catheter one week before surgery to remove their tumours.
When tissues samples were analysed after surgery, there were signs the virus had targeted and killed cancer cells in the bladder.
Once these cells had died, the virus had then reproduced and infected other cancerous cells - but all other healthy cells were left intact.
What the virus does is special, says study leader Prof Hardev Pandha, from the University of Surrey and Royal Surrey County Hospital.
"The virus gets inside cancer cells and kills them by triggering an immune protein - and that leads to signalling of other immune cells to come and join the party," he said.
Normally, the tumours in the bladder are "cold" because they do not have immune cells to fight off the cancer.
But the actions of the virus turn them "hot", making the body's immune system react.
Prof Pandha said the same virus had also been tested on skin cancer, but this was the first time it had been studied in a clinical trial on bladder cancer.
"Reduction of tumour burden and increased cancer cell death was observed in all patients, and removed all trace of the disease in one patient following just one week of treatment, showing its potential effectiveness," he said.
"Notably, no significant side effects were observed in any patient."
'New era in treatment'
The plan is now to use the common cold virus with a targeted immunotherapy drug treatment, called a checkpoint inhibitor, in a future trial in more patients.
Dr Nicola Annels, research fellow at the University of Surrey, said viruses like the coxsackievirus "could signal a move away from more established treatments such as chemotherapy".
Allen Knight, chairman of Action Bladder Cancer UK, said the study findings were "very exciting".
Bladder cancer costs the NHS more per patient than nearly every other cancer, because of the high recurrence rate, he said.
"If the safety, tolerability, and efficacy data can be confirmed in larger clinical studies and trials, then it could herald a new era in the treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, like me, who often feel that innovations in cancer therapies pass us by."
Dr Mark Linch, a bladder cancer expert at the Cancer Research UK Cancer Institute at University College London, said the initial results were "encouraging".
"It will be really interesting to see how this new virus-based therapy fares in larger trials in people with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, particularly in combination with newer immunotherapies," he said.
Dvur Kralove, Jul 8 (AP/UNB) — Two Barbary lion cubs have been born in a Czech zoo, a welcome addition to a small surviving population of a rare lion subspecies that has been extinct in the wild.
The pair, one male and one female, were born on May 10 in the Dvur Kralove park. Under the guidance of mother Khalila, they have taken their first steps in their enclosure in recent days. They have not yet been named.
The biggest lion subspecies, which once roamed its native northern Africa, was completely wiped out due to human activities. Many were killed by gladiators in Roman times while hunting contributed to their extinction later.
It's believed Barbary lions went extinct in the wild in the 1960s.
Fewer than 100 are estimated to live in captivity.
Chicago, Jul 8 (AP/UNB) — Alzheimer's disease may be a risk for older prostate cancer patients given hormone-blocking treatment, a large, U.S. government-funded analysis found.
Previous evidence has been mixed on whether the treatment might be linked with mental decline. But experts say the new results stand out because they're from a respected national cancer database and the men were tracked for a long time — eight years on average.
Among 154,000 older patients, 13% who received hormone-blocking treatment developed Alzheimer's, compared with 9% who had other treatment or chose no therapy, the study found.
The risk for dementia from strokes or other causes was higher: It was diagnosed in 22% of those who got hormone-blocking treatment, versus 16% of the other patients.
The results, using perhaps one of the largest and most reliable databases, suggests there truly may be a connection, said Dr. Sumanta Pal, a prostate cancer expert with the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Pal was not involved in the study.
The analysis from University of Pennsylvania researchers was published Friday in JAMA Network Open.
The results aren't proof but experts say they underscore the importance of discussing potential risks and benefits when choosing cancer treatment.
The researchers analyzed data from a National Cancer Institute database of cancer cases and treatment and covers almost 30% of the U.S. population. The study focused on men in their 70s, on average, with local or advanced prostate cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2003. They were followed until 2013. Medicare records indicated dementia or Alzheimer's diagnosis.
Hormone-blocking treatment can include testes removal to reduce levels of testosterone, which fuels prostate cancer growth. But it more typically involves periodic drug injections or implants that achieve the same result.
Most U.S. men who receive this treatment are in their 70s or older. It's sometimes used in men who might not be healthy enough to tolerate other cancer treatments including surgery to remove the prostate and radiation.
It's unclear how the treatment might be linked with mental decline. The researchers noted that it can lead to diabetes, which also has been linked with dementia — perhaps because blood vessel damage from diabetes can restrict blood flow to the brain. Hormone treatment also raises risks for heart disease and depression, which both have been linked with dementia.
Researcher Grace Lu-Yao of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center in Philadelphia, said the potential dementia risks from hormone-blocking treatment may outweigh any benefit for younger, healthier patients with longer expected life spans.
While the study doesn't prove that the treatment causes dementia, she said, it is important to tell patients "because of the potential impact of Alzheimer's disease or dementia on the quality of life of patients and their family." She was not involved in the study.