Currencies are the backbone of the global economy, providing a means of exchange and facilitating international trade. Some currencies, however, are considered stronger and more valuable than others, which makes them particularly attractive to investors and traders. These are the top ten most valuable currencies in the world in 2023, based on their exchange rates against the US dollar. How is foreign currency priced? Foreign currency is priced based on its exchange rate, which represents the value of one currency in terms of another currency. Exchange rates are determined by the supply and demand of each currency in the foreign exchange market. The value of a currency can fluctuate based on a variety of factors, including economic conditions, political events, and changes in interest rates. In general, when a currency is in high demand, its value will increase relative to other currencies, and when it is in low demand, its value will decrease. For example, if there is a high demand for U.S. dollars, its exchange rate will likely rise compared to other currencies, and vice versa. Exchange rates can be quoted in two different ways: as a direct or an indirect quote. In a direct quotation, the foreign currency is the base currency; while in an indirect quote, the domestic currency is the base currency. For example, in Bangladesh, the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and BDT is 107.52. This means that 1 U.S. dollar can be exchanged for BDT 107.52 (direct quote) or BDT 1 can be exchanged for 0.0093 U.S. dollars (indirect quote). Foreign currency can be purchased and sold in the foreign exchange market through banks, brokers, or online platforms. The exchange rate at the time of the transaction will determine the cost or value of the currency being exchanged. Read More: How to Identify Fake Currency Notes in Bangladesh Which are the Top 10 Strongest Currencies in 2023? Whether you are a seasoned investor or simply curious about the global financial landscape, the world's 10 strongest currencies will provide you with valuable insight. Kuwaiti Dinar The Kuwaiti Dinar (KWD) is considered the strongest currency in the world with a value of 1 KWD equaling 3.26 USD and 347.65 BDT. The KWD is unpegged, allowing it to move freely, and is supported by Kuwait's sizable sovereign wealth fund managed by the Kuwait Investment Authority. The economy of Kuwait is heavily dependent on oil and gas exports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in global crude oil prices. However, the KIA has drawn up a plan to counter this and ensure the value of the KWD remains strong and stable. Read More: How to safely send remittance to Bangladesh?
A joint study by two researchers from Princeton University and University of Pennsylvania seems to have answered one of the most asked timeless questions: can money buy happiness? The research conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Matthew Killingsworth, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reached a conclusion: happiness tends to rise with increase in income and earnings. The latest study on the correlation between money and happiness refutes the previously reached conclusion that happiness levels off for people when their income reaches $75,000, The Washington Post reports. In 2010, Nobel Prize-winning economist and psychologist Daniel Kahneman first proposed this threshold in a study that found that "emotional well-being [also] improves with log income, but there is no further growth beyond a yearly income of $75,000." Read More: Happiness Hormone: Ways to Boost Dopamine However, a research conducted by Matthew Killingsworth, a happiness researcher and senior fellow at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, found that happiness does not level out after hitting $75,000, rather continues to rise with “income well beyond $200,000,” the report adds. In their latest study, both researchers came together and pitted their theories against each other with the help of an arbiter. The study was adjusted for inflation, they told The Washington Post. The two researchers surveyed 33,391 people in the US — aged between 18 and 65 — with a household income of at least $100,000 a year. Read More: From coffee to yoga to happiness: Offbeat ministries from around the world! Killingsworth developed a smartphone app called ‘Track Your Happiness’ to measure their happiness. The app required participants to report their feelings at random intervals throughout the day. “The data came from repeatedly pinging people at randomly-timed moments during daily life, and asking about their happiness at that moment in real-time,” he told The Washington Post via email. They were specifically asked questions like “How do you feel right now?” on a scale ranging from “very bad” to “very good.” The study found that happiness continues to rise with “income even in the high range of incomes” for the majority of people, reaching a conclusion that for many, earning more can mean increased happiness. Read More: Eid for Introverts: Finding Happiness and Fulfillment on Your Own However, for about 20% of the respondents, the case is a bit different. For them, the unhappiness diminishes with rising income up to a certain threshold, the report says citing the research. These people usually experience “negative miseries” that can’t be alleviated by making more money, according to the study. “In the simplest terms, the findings suggest that for most people larger incomes are associated with greater happiness,” Killingsworth said about the final conclusion of the study. However, he cautioned that money isn’t everything — “just one of the many determinants of happiness.” Read More: Spending Money for Happiness: 10 Effective Ways “For instance, if you’re rich and miserable, more money won’t help,” The Washington Post quoted him as saying.
Fake money is often termed a silent epidemic. The consequences of fake notes on the economy aren’t visible overnight. Rather it has a long-term financial impact that effectively cripples the economy. In fact, the situation became so severe for India that they had to undertake a demonetization policy to curb the supply of counterfeit notes. While the issue with counterfeit currency isn’t as severe in Bangladesh, it is still prevalent. Here are some tips to detect a fake currency note in Bangladesh. The State of Fake Currency Notes in Bangladesh The history of fake notes in Bangladesh almost dates back to the introduction of the currency itself. Bangladesh Taka was officially introduced as the state currency in 1972 after the independence. A year later, coins of different denominations of the fraction of 1 taka were also introduced. Currently, the government holds 1 Taka, 2 Taka, and 5 Taka as treasury notes. There have been several changes and the introduction of new notes post-2000. Bangladesh Bank introduced the 1000 Taka note in 2008 with the most recent addition being the 200 Taka note. Over the years, the security concern over counterfeit currencies has seen BB add several security features to the currencies. Read More: Govt keen to expand digital banking, examine if digital currency could be launched A look at the pattern of all the busted counterfeit currency gangs in Bangladesh reveals that most of the fake notes are either in 500 to 1000 Taka denomination. It’s a simple case of the economy of scale where the cost of counterfeiting can only be accrued by the 500 and 1000 Taka denominations. The early counterfeits, before the computer and modern printers, were produced through the hand press system. Needless to say, they were far less accurate and easily detectable. But with more advanced software and printers, fake currencies are becoming more and more like the real ones. A recent bust of a Dhaka-based fake currency gang showed how the security strip, micro prints, and watermark are accurately replicated making it almost impossible for a normal person to distinguish between the two. Even then, there are some strict guidelines set by Bangladesh Bank to identify fake notes. You can check for all of these if you’re worried about the authenticity. Read More: HSBC introduces domestic foreign currency transaction through RTGS Ways to Detect Fake Currency Notes in Bangladesh Watermark The first obvious sign is the watermark. Each BB-issued 500 and 1000 Taka note has the BB emblem, the denomination value, and a portrait of the father of the nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as the watermark. Oftentimes, a cheap replicated fake note will have a misplaced watermark or the print of the portrait will be off when held against the sunlight. This is a clear way to detect fake notes. Security Strip The second most obvious way to detect a fake note is by looking at the security strip. The security strip is lodged within the note and has distinct features which are near impossible to replicate. The first thing to look for is placement. The security strip is positioned vertically on the left side of the note. If you carefully check the top of the security strip, you will notice that it intersects the BB emblem printed on the note. Fake notes often fail to be this precise. Read More: Haji Danesh to be Bangladesh's first cashless campus: Palak The new 500 and 1000 Taka notes have the denomination and the BB emblem printer vertically on them. The older notes from 10 Taka to 500 Taka had the word “Bangladesh” printed in Bangla. The 1000 Taka note had the denomination printed on a mirrored progression along the strip. Print Quality The print quality is another indicator to identify fake notes. That is because the printing process of a banknote is very different from traditional home-based printing. A banknote uses high-quality ink and press printing methods to produce notes. These are rig-like printing machines that are extremely expensive as well as difficult to get hands-on. A typical fake note made with a standard ink printer or even an industrial-grade press printer will not be able to replicate the microprint or the uneven feel at certain places. And that brings us to the next point. Microprints Every Bangladesh bank note issued by BB has distinct microprint which not only makes them unique but also highly difficult to counterfeit. These micro prints are more prevalent on the 500 and 1000 Taka notes. Read More: Towards a cashless society: MFS monthly transactions cross Tk 1.11 lakh crore These notes have small seven diagonal ink prints which have a distinct hand feel to them. additionally, there are several details on the BB emblem as well as the portrait of the father of the nation which is near impossible to replicate with a normal printer. Serial Number Bangladesh Bank-issued notes have a unique seven-digit code preceded by two letter grades. The grading system and reading system are not disclosed to the public. Bank teller machines and money counter machines are equipped with the reading mechanism of bank-issued notes. BB can easily check the authenticity of any note by comparing its serial number with the database. Raised Ink Another telltale sign of a fake note is the raised ink. Bank notes, especially the 100, 500, and 1000 Taka notes have raised ink at several points which are easily understood by touch. You can get a feel of the raised ink in the note description, bottom, and sides of the notes. Read More: Bangladesh Bank to flirt with digital currency en route to cashless society Bangladesh Bank also uses color-shifting ink on the 100, 500, and 1000 Taka notes. If you move the note around under direct light, you will notice the color shifting to a bottle-green tone. This color shifting can’t typically be recreated on fake notes. The feel of the Note The currency note paper is not your typical day-to-day use paper. These papers are specifically imported from different foreign sources under exclusive tenders of the Security Printing Press of Bangladesh. As a result, any person handling a fake note will be easily able to tell the difference between the two. A fake note will be either too smooth or too rough, never exactly the same. The government also has a general import embargo on the exact same type of paper used for printing currency notes. Final Words If you look closely, it's easily possible to detect a fake currency note in Bangladesh. Whether it’s the watermark, or hand feel on the security strip, one or the other will definitely be off. With the high denomination of Bangladeshi currencies limited to 500 and 1000 Taka notes, it's relatively easy to spot fake notes. Still, you should be careful while handling and if you notice any anomaly, inform the central bank to report the case. Read More: Digital Currency: Benefits and Risks of the Cashless Economy in Bangladesh
TikTok has become one of the world's most popular social media platforms, with millions of users generating billions of views daily. The app provides a unique opportunity for people to connect with others, showcase their talents, and even make money. With its unique feature to create and share short videos by adding a few texts, graphics, and music, the platform Let's find out the most effective ways to make money on TikTok in 2023. 9 Best Ways to Make Money on TikTok in 2023 Developing Videos for TikTok Making interesting and shareable movies might be one of the simplest ways to earn money on TikTok. When you have built up a sizable audience, you can begin to monetize your material by forming partnerships with companies in exchange for paid adverts or sponsored articles. Suppose you want your TikTok videos to be successful. In that case, you should utilize popular music, interact with the people who follow you, and produce fresh material on a continuous basis. This is normally the first stage for all the other ways to make money on TikTok. You must make lots of videos to grow your audience. The larger the audience, the more potential for earning money will create. Read Money: How to Earn Money from YouTube Channel Marketing Based on Influence You may also earn money on TikTok by working with businesses and becoming an influencer if you have a huge audience engaged with your content. Brands are continuously seeking prominent users on TikTok to cooperate with so that they may advertise their goods or services to a larger audience and reach more people. You may make direct contact with businesses, or you can utilize platforms that are specifically designed for influencer marketing. TikTok Live TikTok Live is a tool that gives users the ability to stream live videos to their respective followers. Going live allows you to interact with your audience in real time, increasing the likelihood that you will win presents that can afterward be traded in for monetary compensation. Read More: How to Earn Money from Instagram Make sure to connect with your viewers, answer any questions they may have, and keep your broadcast exciting and entertaining if you want to get the most out of TikTok Live.
The government of Bangladesh has fixed a target to increase the money supply to 16.5 percent from the existing 15.6 percent in the next two fiscals. As per a government document, in the 2022-23 fiscal the rate of money supply is at 15.6 percent. For the next 2023-24 fiscal the government has projected to increase the rate to 16 percent and for the 2024-25 fiscal it will be 16.5 percent. Academically, the enhancement of money supply might increase inflation. This kind of target of ‘broad money’ growth would further invite inflation in the country. Also read: Deposits at IBBL 'completely safe': Bangladesh Bank "Broad money" – or M2 – is a calculation of the money supply that includes all components of "narrow money", such as cash and checking deposits, and also "near money" such as savings deposits, money market securities, and other time-related deposits. M2 is a broader measure of money supply and is being closely watched as an indicator of money supply and future inflation, and as a target of central bank monetary policy. If broad money exceeds nominal GDP growth, academically, commodity prices will take another steep jump, leaving limited-income consumers and the poor to bear the brunt of the increasing squeeze on the cost of living. In 2020-21 fiscal year the money supply was 13.6 percent. ReadMore: Bangladesh seeks zero tariff on apparel exports to US at 6th TICFA meeting In the 2021-22 fiscal the proposed money supply rate was 13.8 percent, but the revised rate was 15 percent. It was increased because of the government stimulus packages to inject money in various sectors to run their activities for offsetting the impact of COVID-19 pandemic that stalled the economic activities of the whole world, as well as in Bangladesh. Apart from the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, the Russia-Ukraine war, and sanctions and counter-sanctions caused another deadly impact on the world economy as world trade was seriously damaged due to this. The prices of essential commodities, fuel oil and transportation costs increased heavily. Russia and Ukraine were one of the main sources of Bangladesh for various essential items, like wheat. Read More: Nagad is a Digital Bangladesh success story: Mustafa Jabbar As a result, the people of the country have to spend more money in purchasing their day to day essential items. To lessen the burden of fixed income group, low income group and lower middle income group people, the government has taken various types of steps. These include selling rice among 50 lakh families at the rate of Tk 15 per kg and providing special family cards to one crore people by which they will be able to procure essential commodities at fair price.
If someone thinks of investing their money, it almost universally comes down to two major ways – either through equity or debt. Equity is where an investor becomes a part owner of the invested company or business. Whereas debt is the traditional lending and borrowing process. Here the investor acts as the creditor and the return is the interest plus capital. Interestingly, these two concepts are also what define shares and bonds. So, Shares or bonds, what is the best investment stream? And more importantly, what’s right for you? Let’s find out. What are Shares? A share is a unit of measurement for a stock, which is the actual asset in which you invest. Shares make up the basis of equity investment. Here the investor invests to become a part owner of the company. The size of the owner depends on the number of shares bought. It also depends on the number of shares in circulation by the company. Read More: Apartment Buying Mistakes to Avoid to Secure Your Investment At its core, an investor or shareholder utilizes the high-risk, high-return factor of share investment. For example, if the company consistently performs well, the shareholder will enjoy a consistently high ROI. On the other hand, if a company performs, poorly, it will lead to a loss of investment. Shareholders receive dividends annually based on the profit margin of the company. Depending on the business cycle, this margin can be high or even so low that there might be no dividend at all. If an investor holds a substantial share in a company, they get a place on the board of directors where they can vote to decide the future course of the company. Shares essentially allow an individual investor to take responsibility and the implications are also simple. You share the profit as well as the loss in an equal manner, hence the high risk, high return factor. Read More: Metaverse Real Estate Investment: Buying Land, Apartment, Property in Virtual World Advantages of Shares Compared to Bonds The main advantage of shares is the potential for high returns. Other investment opportunities can hardly provide a similar level of return possibilities. Shares also pay dividends which is another addition to lucrative profit margins. The return on investment will grossly depend on the period of high profit or less. Since the instrument of investment for shares is equity, investors can expect proportional growth or loss on their investments. The same doesn’t hold for bonds. Investors can input their ideas into the future process of a business with share investments. It makes for a more controlled and impactful investment compared to bonds. Read More: Share Market Investment Guide: How to Invest in Stocks in Bangladesh Disadvantages of Shares Compared to Bonds The only disadvantage of shares compared to bonds are the high-risk factor. There is no way to understand how a business will perform given the volatile investment climate. Every share is traded through a central stock exchange commission which may go through a gross fluctuation by the minute. So if you’re risk-averse, chances are that shares aren’t really for you. Read More: Making Investment Decisions: Factors to consider when investing money What are Bonds? You lend your friend a crisp 100-dollar bill and he pays you back 110 dollars the next month. The additional 10 dollars over the capital is the interest on top of the capital. Bonds follow this exact principle of debt instrument. Here the investor, who buys the bond, is the creditor, and the bond seller company or business is the debtor. The investor (bond buyer) and the company (bond seller) essentially draw up a loan agreement. As part of the agreement, the company will pay back the invested sum within a certain date along with a regular fixed interest rate on top of the capital. It's low risk with a low return but provides better security on the invested capital. Read More: Plot vs Apartment: Which is the Better Investment Option? Advantages of Bonds over Shares The only advantage of bonds over shares is the low volatility. Unlike shares, bonds have a fixed return rate on top of the capital. Here, the investor knows upfront how much they will be getting out of the investment at the end of the cycle. Even in case, the company goes bankrupt, the bond investors will get priority compared to the shareholders in returning the dues. As a result, the investments of bondholders are secured in both ways. Disadvantages of Bonds Compared to Shares The main disadvantage of bonds compared to shares are the reduced return and lack of equity. At the cost of security, bonds investor has to forego a substantial ROI generation. The bonds' investors do not get any say in the process and proceedings of the business which is otherwise possible with shares. Read More: Is Sanchayapatra a Good Investment in 2022? Lifecycle of Bonds and Shares Both bonds and shares have their respective lifecycles which are often important for an investor to understand which investment cycle works best for them. A share has typically 4 phases in its lifecycle – accumulation phase, markup phase, distribution phase, and downtrend phase. Each of these phases comes up cyclically where the price stabilizes, goes up, shareholders sell and the price tumbles again. The bond lifecycle is much more simple compared to the shares. Here there’s a primary market where the bond gets issued, a secondary market where the bond gets traded, and finally maturity, where the investors get back their capital. Read More: Is Gold a Good Investment in 2022? The companies can use the resolved bonds at maturity to venture into new refinancing opportunities. Shares vs. Bonds – Which One is the Better Investment Option? Shares and bonds are both great investment options. But the choice of investment depends much on what you want out of your investment. If you want a high return and aren’t worried about the associated risks, go for shares. But if you are more concerned about the security of the investment and returns are your secondary concern, then head over to the bond market. Read More: Saving vs. Investing Money: Know the Pros and Cons Final Words Shares and bonds are both equally popular as investment opportunities. The process of investing through shares usually requires a BO account in a brokerage firm. On the other hand, a bond requires an agreement drawn out through a third party, usually a bank. Both stocks and bonds are protected by strict government financial regulation with the former having its separate regulatory commission. So depending on your preference, both shares and bonds can be an effective way to increase your wealth base.
Rapid Action Battalion (Rab) claimed to have arrested six members of a fraud ring from Dhaka's Mirpur as they swindled a large sum of money from job seekers with false promises. The accused are Md Masum Billah, 33, Khairul Alam Rocky, 20, Md Kamruzzaman, 22, Md Mahmudul Hasan, 32, Masud Rana, 24, and SM Raihan, 24. Rab also seized cash, eight mobile phones, SIM cards, fake appointment letters; a keyboard, CPU, monitor, laptop, and resumes of job seekers during its drive Wednesday, Superintendent of Police Bina Rani Das of Rab-3 said Thursday. Read: 6 fraud gang members involved in making 144 types of fake certificates held The arrestees published fake advertisements for different jobs – including those of security guards, assistant supervisors, and marketing officers – on social media using the name SSF Private Company. The fraudsters told the police that they were also deceived by fake job advertisements on social media before making a profession out of it. Legal actions will be taken against the arrestees, Bina Rani said.
Laundered money and assets abroad can be legalized by paying 10 per cent and 15 per cent tax respectively without questioning by any government agencies. The government is going to introduce such special opportunities in a bid to bring back laundered money in the country to enhance investment and employment. Economists have strongly opposed this planned concession as it discourages honest investors with serous injustice to domestic investors who pay tax to the state. “The amount of money that will be brought into the country can be legalized with only 10 per cent income tax, without any questioning regarding source of income by Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC), National Board of Revenue (NBR) or Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit (BFIU),” a senior official at the Finance Division told UNB on Tuesday. The official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because of sensitivity, confirmed what Finance Minister Mustafa Kamal told reporters last week. READ: Revenue collection target to be set at Tk4.33 trillion in budget for next fiscal Meanwhile the finance minister instructed the budget officials to include such an opportunity in the upcoming national budget for FY2021-22. The budget proposals will be placed in the Parliament on June 9, 2022. Dr Debapriya Bhattacharya, Distinguished Fellow, CPD told UNB that this initiative is totally immoral, unlawful and against the socio-economic development philosophy of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Awami League. Before introducing such a provision in the national budget, the government should shut down the regulators including ACC, NBR and BFIU, he said. Debapriya termed it as "budget capture" by the crony influential who accumulated money in the country illegally and smuggled it out of the country illegally, and now being allowed to legalize this ill-gotten wealth located abroad by paying a nominal tax. “This is a perverse joke with thousands of honest tax payers and hardworking entrepreneurs of the country,” said the eminent economist. “Such an evil philosophy would neither contribute in decent tax mobilisation nor for generating productive investment. This will only help those who are now being hounded overseas for their assets as they cannot show that these assets that have been procured through legal means,” he added. Dr. Muhammad Abdul Mazid, former NBR Chairman said that this initiative will worry those who are paying around 30 per cent tax on their legal income. He said the tax rate on illegal income should not be below the regular tax rate in the country considering moral blow to the honest tax payers. To take this opportunity, a person can mention the amount declared in his annual income tax return. In other words, the smugglers or laundered black money can be legalized by paying tax at the prescribed rate. If anyone has movable and immovable property abroad in addition to cash, he can show that property in his income tax return. No question will be asked if 15 per cent tax is paid for this, sources said. This opportunity will be given from July this year to June 30, 2023. That money can be brought to the country through banking channels. In this case, the government has to be paid 10 per cent tax before the money is deposited in the account. At present, there is an opportunity to whitening black money with a penalty of 25 per cent on cash, bank deposits, stock market, and savings certificates with additional 5 percent tax. Apart from this, the government is going to give an opportunity to legalize the money laundered in the upcoming budget.
Anti- Corruption Commission (ACC) on Saturday filed case against two officials of Dhaka Bank’s Bangshal branch over Tk 37.7 million that went missing from the bank’s vault. Assistant director of ACC Atiqul Alam filed the case with Dhaka Coordiated Office -1, ACC. The two accused are senior cash in-charge Rifatul Haque and First vice President and operation manager Emran Ahmed. The management interrogated Rifatul Haque and Emran Ahmed and they confessed to misappropriating the money. The bank authorities handed them over to Bangshal police and filed the report. A lower court in Dhaka on Friday sent them jail. Dhaka metropolitan magistrate Masudur Rahman passed the order as investigation officer (IO) and Bangshal police station sub-inspector Prodip Kumar Sarker produced them before the court and pleaded to send them to jail after showing them arrested under section 54. The IO in his plea said the accused were in-charge of the vault of the branch and the keys were in their possession. An audit team of the bank learned about the missing amount during their audit on Thursday and filed the report to branch manager Abu Bakkar Siddique.
The government allocation for public expenditure on goods and services will witness a significant rise in the coming years after a slight dip in the last couple of years. The government has estimated to spend Tk 401.3 billion, which is 6.6% of the budget, for public expenditure in the coming 2021-22 fiscal. The country is likely to get Tk 5933.14 billion budget for 2021-22 fiscal, Tk 253.14 billion higher than the running one, aiming to face the COVID-19 pandemic challenge for recovering the economy. Read BSMMU announces Tk 602.73cr budget for FY 2020-21 The estimation for 2022-23 fiscal has been set at Tk 465.2 billion, which will be 6.7% of the budget. According to an official document, the allocation for the purpose in the running 2020-21 fiscal is Tk 350 billion or 6.1% of the budget. The document also reads that the government has estimated to bring down its expenditure in current account, including purchase of product and service, while increase the capital expenditure in the next two fiscals. It said that the current expenditure for 2021-22 and 2022-23 fiscal has been estimated at 54.4% and 54.5% of the total budget respectively. Also read: Spending on public servants' remuneration to witness uptick from next fiscal As per the document, the government allocation for expenditure can be divided in current expenditure and capital expenditure. Salaries and allowances of government employees, purchase of product and service, compensation and relocation expenses, payment of interest against foreign and domestic loans - these are all found under the current expenditure category. Besides, ‘food accounts’ and ‘expense for structural coordination’ are also under this expenditure. On the other hand, capital expenditure is spending that leads to the creation of new productive assets and inclusion. It is akin to investment, so government-funded projects and project components in the annual development programme (ADP), as well as non-ADP capital expenditure are the two main categories for capital expenditure. Also read: Stop unnecessary expenditure of public money: PM Besides, loans and advance payments, development programmes from revenue budget, projects outside the ADP and non-ADP Food for Work programme and handover expenses fall under this expenditure. The document stated that in the revised budget for the 2019-20 fiscal, the allocation for public expenditure on products and services was Tk 322.1 billion, that is 6.5% of the budget. It also mentioned that in 2018-19 fiscal the allocation was Tk 285.7 billion which was 7.3% of the budget that year. In four previous fiscals i.e. 2017-18, 2016-17, 2015-16 and 2014-15 respectively, the allocations were Tk 234.8 billion (7.3% of budget), Tk 205.49 billion (7.6%), Tk 182.05 billion (7.6%) and Tk 166.27 billion (8%). Read 'Unimplementable' budget to cause public sufferings: BNP The document said that from 2014-15 fiscal to 2018-19 fiscal the allocation for public expenditure in product and service was near about 8%. Due to various government steps, like enhancement of transparency through introducing E-GP, development in public procurement management and others, the allocation for this sector can be delineated in the government budget process, the document said. Meanwhile, amid the Coronavirus crisis, the government is working according to what it believes to be 'a comprehensive plan' with four main strategies. The 4-pronged strategy entails discouraging luxury expenditures, prioritising government spending that creates jobs, creating loan facilities through commercial banks at subsidised interest rates for the affected industries and businesses, and finally expanding the coverage of the government’s social safety net programmes. Read Govt aims to rein in budget deficit back within 5% from next fiscal