A joint study by two researchers from Princeton University and University of Pennsylvania seems to have answered one of the most asked timeless questions: can money buy happiness? The research conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Matthew Killingsworth, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reached a conclusion: happiness tends to rise with increase in income and earnings. The latest study on the correlation between money and happiness refutes the previously reached conclusion that happiness levels off for people when their income reaches $75,000, The Washington Post reports. In 2010, Nobel Prize-winning economist and psychologist Daniel Kahneman first proposed this threshold in a study that found that "emotional well-being [also] improves with log income, but there is no further growth beyond a yearly income of $75,000." Read More: Happiness Hormone: Ways to Boost Dopamine However, a research conducted by Matthew Killingsworth, a happiness researcher and senior fellow at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, found that happiness does not level out after hitting $75,000, rather continues to rise with “income well beyond $200,000,” the report adds. In their latest study, both researchers came together and pitted their theories against each other with the help of an arbiter. The study was adjusted for inflation, they told The Washington Post. The two researchers surveyed 33,391 people in the US — aged between 18 and 65 — with a household income of at least $100,000 a year. Read More: From coffee to yoga to happiness: Offbeat ministries from around the world! Killingsworth developed a smartphone app called ‘Track Your Happiness’ to measure their happiness. The app required participants to report their feelings at random intervals throughout the day. “The data came from repeatedly pinging people at randomly-timed moments during daily life, and asking about their happiness at that moment in real-time,” he told The Washington Post via email. They were specifically asked questions like “How do you feel right now?” on a scale ranging from “very bad” to “very good.” The study found that happiness continues to rise with “income even in the high range of incomes” for the majority of people, reaching a conclusion that for many, earning more can mean increased happiness. Read More: Eid for Introverts: Finding Happiness and Fulfillment on Your Own However, for about 20% of the respondents, the case is a bit different. For them, the unhappiness diminishes with rising income up to a certain threshold, the report says citing the research. These people usually experience “negative miseries” that can’t be alleviated by making more money, according to the study. “In the simplest terms, the findings suggest that for most people larger incomes are associated with greater happiness,” Killingsworth said about the final conclusion of the study. However, he cautioned that money isn’t everything — “just one of the many determinants of happiness.” Read More: Spending Money for Happiness: 10 Effective Ways “For instance, if you’re rich and miserable, more money won’t help,” The Washington Post quoted him as saying.
New study shows a single two-gram oral dose of azithromycin at normal birth can reduce 33% maternal sepsis, deaths
A recent multicountry study called Azithromycin Prophylaxis in Labor Use Study (A-PLUS) has found that a single dose of two-gram azithromycin antibiotic taken orally during vaginal delivery, commonly known as normal delivery, can significantly reduce the risk of maternal sepsis or death. Sepsis is a severe medical condition that occurs when the body responds excessively to an infection, which can result in multiple organ failures and death. The findings of the study have recently been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The study was conducted by the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of which icddr,b is a partner. The A-PLUS trial enrolled women in labour from Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia. Between September 2020 and August 2022, 29,278 women were randomised to receive either azithromycin or a placebo. The risk of maternal sepsis or death was 33% lower in the azithromycin group compared to the placebo (look-alike dummy, which does not contain the study drug) group. The difference in the outcome was mainly due to the lower occurrence of sepsis in the azithromycin group than in the placebo group. Additionally, women receiving azithromycin were less likely to develop infections, including endometritis (infection of the lining of the womb), wound infections, and urine infections. Women receiving azithromycin also had fewer hospital readmissions and unscheduled healthcare visits compared to the placebo group. The findings from interim analysis of the study were so impactful that one of the trial sites (Democratic Republic of the Congo) stopped enrolling new participants early to ensure that as many women as possible could benefit as soon as possible. However, the study could not find azithromycin to have any impact on neonatal sepsis or death. It is also to be noted that azithromycin has been in use for caesarean delivery to prevent and manage infections. The Bangladesh site of the study was co-led by Dr Rashidul Haque, an Emeritus Scientist and Sk Masum Billah, an Associate Scientist at icddr,b and Dr William Petri at the University of Virginia, USA. Commenting on the implication of the study Dr Haque said that in Bangladesh, where about two out of three deliveries are normal, a single dose of two-gram azithromycin given during labour as a preventive measure can help saving many lives. He hopes that healthcare providers and policymakers will consider using azithromycin as a preventive measure during vaginal deliveries. These findings have the potential to change clinical practice by providing a safe, effective and low-cost approach to reduce the global burden of maternal sepsis and death, said Diana W. Bianchi, M.D., director of NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the primary funder of the trial. “We urgently need effective strategies to prevent pregnancy-related infections, which account for roughly 10% of maternal deaths worldwide.” The study also found that azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The researchers hope that their findings will inform the development of new strategies to prevent maternal sepsis and death. This multi-site study was conducted by NICHD's Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research and was co-funded by NICHD and the FNIH, with support to FNIH provided by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
As glaciers melt and pour massive amounts of water into nearby lakes, 15 million people across the globe live under the threat of a sudden and deadly outburst flood, a new study finds. More than half of those living in the shadow of the disaster called glacial lake outburst floods are in just four countries: India, Pakistan, Peru and China, according to a study in Tuesday’s Nature Communications. A second study, awaiting publication in a peer-reviewed journal, catalogs more than 150 glacial flood outbursts in history and recent times. It’s a threat Americans and Europeans rarely think about, but 1 million people live within just 6 miles (10 kilometers) of potentially unstable glacial-fed lakes, the study calculated. One of the more devastating floods was in Peru in 1941 and it killed between 1,800 and 6,000 people. A 2020 glacial lake outburst flood in British Columbia, Canada, caused a tsunami of water about 330 feet (100 meters) high, but no one was hurt. A 2017 glacial outburst flood in Nepal, triggered by a landslide, was captured on video by German climbers. Alaska’s Mendenhall glacier has had annual small glacial outburst floods in what the National Weather Service calls “suicide basin,” since 2011, according to study lead author Caroline Taylor, a researcher at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom. Heavy rains and a glacial lake outburst flood combined in 2013 in India to kill thousands of people. A 2021 deadly flood in India that was initially attributed to a glacial lake outburst wasn’t caused by one, studies later found. Scientists say so far it doesn’t seem like climate change has made those floods more frequent, but as glaciers shrink with warming, the amount of water in the lakes grows, making them more dangerous in those rare situations when dams burst. “We had glacier lake outburst floods in the past that have killed many many thousands of people in a single catastrophic flooding event,” said study co-author Tom Robinson, a disaster risk scientist at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. “And with climate change glaciers are melting so these lakes are getting bigger, potentially getting more unstable.” Dan Shugar, a geoscientist at the University of Calgary who wasn’t part of the two studies, said much of the threat depends simply on how many people live in a glacial flood zone. “In a warming world we certainly expect more and larger glacial lakes,” Shugar said in an email. “But the threat that these lakes might pose critically depends on where people are living and what their vulnerabilities might be.” Robinson said what’s different about his study is that it’s the first to look at the climate, geography, population, vulnerability and all these factors to get “a good overview of where in the world is the most dangerous places″ for all 1,089 glacial basins. At the top of the list is Khyber Pakhtunkhwa basin in Pakistan, north of Islamabad. “That’s particularly bad,” Robinson said. “Lots of people and they’re very, very vulnerable” because they live in a valley below the lake. The trouble is that scientists are focusing too much attention on the Pakistan, India, China and the Himalayas, often called High Mountain Asia, and somewhat ignoring the Andes, Robinson said. The second and third highest risk basins are in Peru’s Santa basin, and Bolivia’s Beni basin, the paper said. After the deadly Andes flood in the 1940s that region “was sort of a leader” in working on glacial flood outburst threats, but in the last decade or so, High Mountain Asia has taken over because of the high population, said University of Dayton geology professor Umesh Haritashya, who wasn’t part of the studies. India ranks high in the threat list not so much because of the physical setup but because of “a huge number of people downstream.” Three lake basins in the United States and Canada rank high for threats, from the Pacific Northwest to Alaska, but aren’t nearly as high as areas in Asia and the Andes with few people in the danger zone. They are in Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula — distinct from the Mendenhall glacier near Juneau — northeast Washington and west central British Columbia. “This ranking is a good checklist for further research,” said Oliver Korup of the University of Potsdam in Germany, who co-authored the list of glacial lake outburst floods.
A new study conducted in rural Bangladesh has found that areas with high levels of groundwater arsenic contamination that children drink regularly have a greater prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli compared to areas with lower contamination levels. Escherichia coli is a bacteria that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms and often causes diarrhoea. Antibiotic resistance is one of the leading causes of death and hospitalisation worldwide. While the significant drivers of antibiotic resistance are the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, natural elements such as heavy metals could also promote antibiotic resistance. The study by icddr,b scientists and partners was recently published in the journal PLOS Pathogens. Researchers collected water and stool samples from mothers and children of 100 families in two upazila's – Hajiganj and Matlab of Chandpur. Families in Hajiganj use drinking water from shallow tube wells, which are found to have a high concentration of arsenic. However, families in Matlab collect their drinking water from arsenic-free deep tube wells. Read more: 360cr people face inadequate access to water: UN agency "A positive association between arsenic exposure and antibiotic resistance among children in arsenic-affected areas in Bangladesh is an important public health concern. That warrants redoubling efforts to reduce arsenic exposure," the authors said. The study's lead researcher, Mohammad Aminul Islam, adjunct scientist at icddr,b and Assistant Professor at the Washington State University of the US said: "Heavy metals such as arsenic are more stable than antibiotics in the environment. They continue to exert selective pressure on bacteria over a more extended period driving the evolution and expansion of antimicrobial resistance in the community." "It is likely that antibiotic-resistant organisms may colonise humans and animals exposed to heavy metals even without being exposed to antibiotics," Aminul said. "The extent to which this phenomenon drives the observed higher rates of antimicrobial resistance, as opposed to other confounders, would benefit from further study; nevertheless, it is critical to contain this environmental driver of antimicrobial resistance along with responsible antimicrobial usage in medicine and agriculture." Read more: Arsenic problem in Khulna worsens; 589 patients detected
Speakers at a workshop Thursday said informal sector workers, mostly domestic workers, were the ones to lose their jobs first during the pandemic as no households allowed them to work over the fear of the spread of the virus. Also, people working in the services sector, including construction and the ones working independently, lost their work opportunities due lockdown, they said. The speakers made the observations at the workshop on "Promoting decent work and women's rights in the backdrop of Covid-19" which revealed the findings of a study on the job situation in the informal sector during the pandemic. Read: Bangladesh to finish amending labour law by mid-2023, Law Minister tells ILO The study report was conducted by the Workers Resource Centre (WRC), a labour rights organisation with the support of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and Japan. "Support from the government and others from social organisations did not reach these poor and most vulnerable groups. Also, they were deprived of relief support from their local authorities," the study said. Read: Bangladesh considers labour rights related recommendations from US, EU, ILO with due importance: PM's Adviser "Women workers had to suffer from more hardship and insecurities at the workplace than male workers during the pandemic. At that time, many incidents of violence and harassment were reported," it added. Md Moslem Uddin Sadeque, consultant of the International Labour Organization (ILO), Shusuk Oyobe, programme manager of PRS, Gunjan D Dallakoti, ILO official, Saif Mohammad Moinul Islam, senior program officer at ILO Dhaka office, spoke at the programme.
The western European country France presents a unique mix of tradition, modernity, art, and culture. With world-renowned philosophers and artists gracing its lands, France has a history that dates back several thousand years. Over the last few decades, France has established itself as a prestigious European hub for higher education in streams beyond art and literature. Whether it's engineering, life sciences, or world-renowned business degrees, the country has something for every aspirant. In this article, we take a deep dive into higher studies in France. Let's take a look at whether France is a great study-abroad destination for international students including Bangladesh. Read More: Best Countries for Bachelor's Degree in 2023 Why Study in France? France hosts some of the highest numbers of international students in the entire European region. Currently, the country is home to 300,000 students from all over the world pursuing a degree in multilateral streams. France offers a robust and dynamic culture that will enthrall many, whether it’s the picturesque prefectures or the fast-paced city life. Of the 71 accredited universities in France, 57 make it to the global top 1000 institutions for higher education. And the trend has been upward for several years now. France also has some of the lowest tuition fees in all of Europe. As a result, it can also be a great opportunity for self-funded students, as most streams fall within an affordable limit. But that doesn’t mean there aren’t scholarship opportunities in France. Read More: Study in Denmark: Costs, opportunities for international students In this article, we’ll go over the application process, admission requirements, and the associated cost of studying in France as a self-funded student. How to Apply for Higher Studies in France Required Documents for Higher Studies in France The documents required for application are standard and are in line with other European countries. If you are opting for bachelors, you should provide your LSAT scores based on the stream. The same goes for masters and MBA, which might require a GMAT or a GRE score. These are circumstantial, and several institutes don’t even require them. However, there are a few key documents that you will need to prepare beforehand. Read More: Study in Japan: Scholarships, Tuitions, Application Process for Bangladeshi Students The required documents include – -High School transcript certified by the appropriate authority ( For bachelors)-Bachelor’s transcripts certified by the issuing university (For masters and Ph.D.)-Campus France authorization-Passport-Language proficiency score (IELTS/TOEFL iBT/ DELF/DALF)-SOP-Letter of Recommendation-Application fee payment receipt. Additional documents might be required, depending on the application process. For example, if you are opting for a thesis-based masters, you might want to contact a professor beforehand in your desired university with whom your research interest matches. In that case, you might need to prepare a research plan along with other documents. Read More: Study in Belgium: Bachelor's, Masters and PhD options for Bangladeshi students What Documents are Required for Campus France Authorization? For non-EU citizens, the process of studying in France starts with obtaining a Campus France authorization. This essentially allows a prospective student to be eligible for “Etudes en France” or study in France. Campus France authority even has a separate web portal where a prospect needs to register to obtain an authorization letter. The required documents for the authorization include – -Passport-Proof of funding for the studies and accommodation-Letter of application-Proof of accommodation-Medical insurance-Air ticket. Read More: Cheapest countries for Bangladeshi students for higher studies Once you’ve got all that, you’re all set for the Campus France authorization. It is to be noted that Campus France authorization isn't required for the application to the universities themselves. Rather it's required to get a student visa after acceptance into a French university. Application Period There are two main intakes on the French higher education curriculum – fall and spring. The fall intake generally has a deadline of September 15th of the previous year, with the classes expected to commence in the first week of January. For the fall session, early enrolment can start as early as January 17th and last till April first based on the rolling admission process. Classes are expected to start in the first week of September. Read More: SoP for Higher Studies: How to write an unfailing Statement of Purpose? Application Process The application process is pretty simple. Each French university has its application process, which you need to go through individually. The application process starts with selecting the desired major. Students can visit Campus France to explore all the different streams and majors available at the bachelors, masters, and P levels. After that, check whether you meet the admission criteria and simply follow the guidelines to complete the application process. Cost of Studying in France As we already mentioned, the cost of higher studies in France is fairly reasonable. The cost can be broken down into three different types based on bachelors, masters, and Ph.D. Read More: Student Loans in Bangladesh: Banks Offering Education Loans for Higher Studies The cost of bachelors is actually pretty low at about 170 to 600 Euros per year. But that’s only limited to EU, EEA countries, and Switzerland. If you’re from anywhere other than these places, you would have to pay around 2700s euros or 288,035 BDT per year (1 EUR = 106 BDT). The story is somewhat similar with masters too as the cost may run up to 3700 Euros or 394,714 BDT per year. The cost of a Ph.D. is fairly nominal at around 380 Euros or 40,538 BDT per year. But these are estimates in public universities. If you opt for a private one, the cost might go as high as 20,000 Euros or 21,33,594 BDT per year. Read More: Overcoming Study Gap: How to Start Studying after a Long Break Living and Work Opportunities in France The cost of living, however, is far greater than the students' tuition. The annual cost of living may range from 10,000 and 15,000 euros, depending on the cities. The price may even go up if the student resides in Paris. A Bangladeshi student should be able to afford around Tk106500 to 16,00,000 each year. The French government requires the students to demonstrate their ability to pay for their study and remain in France without the aid of a job or scholarship. The amount is close to at least 1000 euros or Tk106500 per month. In short, a student will roughly require 800 to 1000 Euros or Tk85,000 to 1,06,500 per month as living expenses depending on where they are staying. Read More: Higher Study in China: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students The work opportunities are also ample with high wages being available in big cities. Generally, a student can expect to make 7900 Euros or 842,769 BDT annually based on working hours. There are also many on-campus jobs available including GTA and GRA positions. Final Words France has been one of those countries that have been disseminating knowledge for centuries. Their rich culture, history, conspicuous mannerisms, globalization, and unique education system made France one of the best destinations in the world for higher studies. So far we have discussed how to study in France from Bangladesh with self-funding. Whether France is a good study destination for international students depends on many factors. Overall, studying in France would be a wonderful opportunity for international students including Bangladesh. It will not only provide the students with global perspectives but also provide hands-on experience in problem-solving, critical thinking, and being a global citizen with an illustrative career. Read More: Study in the Netherlands: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students
East Asian island country Japan is located in the Pacific Ocean. The “land of the rising sun” is famous for its standard educational system and unique culture. Every year a large number of international students come to study in Japan. Many talented students from Bangladesh dream of going to Japan for higher education too. This article will provide detailed information on how to get higher education in Japan. Is Japan a Good Destination for Higher Studies? Students from middle-class families prefer higher education in Japan due to the low tuition and vast opportunity to access the latest technology and knowledge. The advanced sciences and economic prosperities of the country are incomparable. As one of the most powerful countries in Asia, Japan’s educational system is unique compared to other countries. Here, students can study a variety of subjects ranging from electrical to medicine, literature, business administration, and more. Read Study in Belgium: Bachelor's, Masters and PhD options for Bangladeshi students Japan is one of the safest nations in the world. Japan has a very low crime rate and an extremely low drug use rate. Higher Study in Japan, Academic Year and Course Duration All the first-world countries offer opportunities in various educational institutions for higher education. Likewise, there are five types of higher education institutions in Japan. These are Graduate University, Under Graduate University, College of Technology, Japanese Studies, and Professional Training School. Japan’s education system is running on them. The academic year for higher education in Japan begins in April and ends the following March. Generally, an academic year is divided into two semesters, one April-September and the other October-March. But there are more opportunities for international students in the fall semester, which starts on October 1 and ends on March 31. Read Study in Denmark: Costs, opportunities for international students Most courses at the undergraduate level are of four years duration. Besides, Medicine, Dentistry, and Veterinary Science’s duration are six years. However, the duration for Master’s courses is two years, and the course duration for a doctoral degree or PHD is five years. Japan also offers 2-3 years of professional degrees in Master of Education, Juris Doctor, and professional Master’s degree. Minimum Educational Qualifications to Study Bachelor’s, Master’s, and PhD For undergraduate admission in Japan, a student must have completed at least 12 years of schooling, i.e., an upper secondary certificate from an upper secondary school. For admission to the Master, there should be at least 16 years of schooling. For Ph.D. admission, you will need a Master’s degree with relevant research and job experience. Read Cheapest countries for Bangladeshi students for higher studies However, most higher education institutions in Japan teach in Japanese, while you can find some courses taught in English too. Therefore, if foreign students want to go for higher education in Japan, a student must have to be proficient in the Japanese language. So Bangladeshi students who want to go for higher education in Japan can contact the embassy in Dhaka and learn the Japanese language. Besides, Dhaka University has Japanese language courses of different durations. In addition to that, you will also need English language proficiency. When you go for higher education in Japan, you need to find out which institutions require IELTS. Because some educational institutions want TOEFL CBT to score above 150 or TOEFL iBT scores above 52. And IELTS 6.5/ 7.0 is acceptable to supplement this score. Since the university authorities want TOEFL (CBT/ iBT) directly, it is better for you to take the TOEFL (CBT/ iBT) test in Japan. However, these tests are not required in all courses and universities. So you need to visit the university websites and see what qualifications the university authorities actually expect from students. Read SoP for Higher Studies: How to write an unfailing Statement of Purpose? Subjects Taught for Higher Education in Japan Here are some of the subjects you can study in Japan: Science Subjects: Physics, Chemistry, Ecology, Biology, Material Science, Biology and Neuroscience, Geoscience, Educational Science, Environmental Life Science, Astronomy, Bioscience and Biotechnology, Biomolecular Engineering, Medical Science, MBBS, and more. Management: Accountancy, Management, Area Studies, and more. Read Student Loans in Bangladesh: Banks Offering Education Loans for Higher Studies Humanities: Human Studies, Anthropology, Public Law and Policy, Applied Informatics, Human-Social Information Science, Geophysics, Architecture, and Building Science. Law Subjects: Law and Society, Transnational Law and Policy, and more. In addition, there are linguistics, history, economics, mathematics, mechanical systems and design, nanomechanics, educational informatics, intercultural relations, and engineering, including computer and mathematical science. There are about 800 universities for higher education in Japan. “The University of Tokyo” and “Kyoto University” are among the top 70 universities in the world ranking. Read Higher Study in China: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students Tuition Fees in Japan Tuition fees in Japan depend on which university you study at. If you study at National Universities, tuition fees will be Approx. 820,000 yen or around $5,500 per year (around TK 6 lacs) for an undergraduate degree. If you attend a private university in Japan, the annual tuition fee will be Approximately 1,100,000 yen or around $7,300 (or around TK 8 lacs). For medical, dental, and pharmaceutical studies in private universities, the approximate tuition fee is Approximately 3,200,000 yen or $21,500 (or around TK 23 lacs) per year. The approximate tuition fee for graduate studies such as a Master’s or Ph.D. is 820,000 yen or $5,500 (around TK 6 lacs) each year. For private graduate school, you will need to pay around 1,000,000 yen or $6,700 (around TK 7 lacs) a year. Graduate medical, dental, and pharmaceutical programs will cost around 800,000 yen or $5,500 (around TK 6 lacs) per year. Read Study in the Netherlands: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students Accommodation Facilities and Costs Foreign students studying in Japan can live in four types of accommodation. These four types of accommodation are student dormitories, public housing allocated by local government agencies, staff dormitories of various Japanese organizations, and private rental housing. The average accommodation cost for a student in Tokyo is about 44,000 yen or $300 (around TK 31,000) per month. Overall, the living cost per month will be around 100,000 yen (around TK 71,000), including rent, food, utility, insurance, medical, and others. Scholarship Scopes for International Students in Japan The Japanese study environment is competitive and creative. Japanese universities offer admission for two semesters a year with various scholarships and fellowships. Master’s and Ph.D. students have more opportunities for scholarships. Read Study in France: Scholarship Opportunities and Overview for Bangladeshi Students Among the popular scholarships, the MEXT scholarship is notable. This scholarship is given to developing Japan’s friendships with other countries through research. Scholarship recipients under this program do not have to pay any tuition fee or admission fees. Accommodation, food, and round-trip airfare are also included in the scholarship. Apart from this, students get the opportunity to study without tuition fees in Japan’s ‘ADB-Japan Scholarship Program.’ Living expenses, incidental expenses including rent, purchase of books and other essentials, medical insurance, and travel expenses—all are covered by this scholarship. Another popular scholarship is the Japan-World Bank Scholarship. Through this, there are various training opportunities, including Master's and Ph.D. degrees. Students from various universities get various scholarships and financial incentives for good results and work. These scholarships and fellowship opportunities can be known by e-mailing the university’s international office. Read Studying Abroad: Major Pros and Cons You Need to Consider To get a scholarship, one should have good academic results and be interested in research and higher education. Apart from the various required documents for the scholarship, a ‘Statement of Purpose, why you are interested in doing research should be written. Apart from this, previous research experience and certificates of participation in various social activities are also considered important. Application Process for Higher Education in Japan First of all, you will need to find universities according to your background and interest. You can search the universities at https://www.studyinjapan.go.jp/en/. Next, you will need to apply. The required documents for application are academic certificates, an academic mark sheet or transcript, a TOEFL or IELTS score, a CV or motivation letter and recommendation letter, a certificate from the last educational institution, and a copy of the passport. Read Overcoming Study Gap: How to Start Studying after a Long Break However, make sure you follow the academic year and application deadlines. Each university might have a different application process. Information regarding the application process and minimum qualifications are available from the university website. In order to start the classes on time, the application process should be started at least 2-3 months before the start of the course. Bangladeshi students should apply for a study permit by contacting the relevant branch of the Japanese Embassy in Dhaka. Visa Application Process and Required Documents After you have received confirmation of admission from the university, you must submit all required documents to the Japan Immigration Office. They will accept all your documents and issue Pre-Visa (COE) through the Ministry of Justice in Japan. With this Pre-Visa (COE), you will later apply for a visa at the Japanese Embassy in Bangladesh. Read Higher Study in Germany: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi and Other International Students Documents you will need at the embassy are, Pre-Visa (COE), all documents, mark sheets, and all certificates; the passport should be valid for at least six months; two copies of photo size 3.5 x 4.5, recommendation or reference letter, bank statements and financial solvency documents, medical report, TOEFL/ JLPT 5 (if applicable), scholarship papers (if any) and a cover letter describing the reason for higher education in Japan. Besides, you need to know from the Japanese embassy whether you need any other documents. Part-time Job Opportunities for Students in Japan International students typically can work 28 hours a week. Knowing Japanese makes it easier to work in different organizations. There are job opportunities in various research laboratories and related projects of the university. Read Study in Norway: Scholarship Opportunities for International Students including Bangladesh The work environment in Japan is very professional. Punctuality and professional behavior are always important. In addition, you will get the opportunity to work full-time during the semester breaks. Job Opportunities in Japan After Completion of Study Bangladeshi students or researchers have many job opportunities in Japan. Chances are more if you know Japanese. You can work in various technology companies. Many people also work in financial institutions, laboratories, and commercial institutions. Bangladeshis are joining various Japanese educational institutions and laboratories. Many students also work in famous companies such as Sony, Toyota, and Hitachi. Many students are taking jobs directly from Japan in various corporate organizations in Europe and America. Hence, you will have permanent resident opportunities too. Read Study in Australia: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students Final Words Japan is a great destination for science and technology students. The study system is the same in all universities in Japan. But it is better to select public universities and national universities for a scholarship. Because the number of scholarships in these universities is usually high. So far, we have discussed how Bangladeshi students can apply for bachelor, master's, or Ph.D. admission in Japan. We also gave an idea about tuition fees, living costs, and part-time job opportunities for students in Japan. Hope it helps!
Norway has a long history of providing free university education to students from all over the world. They didn't make any distinctions between foreigners, Norwegians, or EU citizens, but this will all change soon. The Government of Norway has been advised to impose university fees on students from nations outside the EU or EEA. In presenting its recommendations for the nation's 2023 budget, Norway’s Ministry of Education emphasized that Norway continues to be one of the very few nations in the world that does not mandate that international students pay university fees, and it insisted that starting in the 2023 fall semester, universities should introduce fees to at least cover their costs per international student. Ola Borten Moe, the minister of education, responded to the suggestion by stating that since most Norwegian students studying abroad pay university fees, foreign students studying in Norway should also be required to do so. Read Cheapest countries for Bangladeshi students for higher studies She also emphasized that Norwegian citizens from other EU and Schengen Area nations will continue to be able to study there for free, even if taxes are implemented for international students. Rather, only nationals of third-party countries will be subject to the costs. However, the change would only be applicable to students who finished their entire education in Norway, not to those who were enrolled in exchange programs. According to Statistics Norway, there are presently 242,606 resident students in the country between the ages of 19 and 34, with 142,141 being women and 100,465 being males. Of them, over 13,000 were born in Norway to immigrant parents. Read Study in Belgium: Bachelor's, Masters and PhD options for Bangladeshi Students The Ministry of Education insists that universities should be well-equipped to attract international students because the quality of the education is good and not because it is free. The ministry claims that millions of kroner have been spent in an effort to improve the quality of education at the nation's universities. Minister Borten Moe further asserts that if the introduction of fees results in a decrease in the number of foreign students attending Norwegian universities, this will result in more open spots at universities and housing for Norwegian students. In the country's budget for 2023, the government has suggested providing framework funding for universities and colleges in the amount of NOK 42.8 billion. The Ministry plans to expand the funding for education even more through the proposed introduction of new fees in order to create a better and higher-quality system of higher education. Read Student Loans in Bangladesh: Banks Offering Education Loans for Higher Studies Estimated Tuition Fees Beginning in 2023, all universities are required to collect tuition from all students who are not citizens of the EU or EEA. Although estimates suggest that a single semester might cost as much as 150,000 Norwegian kroner (about $15,000 USD or BDT 14, 12000), colleges determine rates depending on real expenditures. Accordingly, a three-year bachelor's degree at a Norwegian institution can wind up costing as much as 900,000 NOK ($90,000 or BDT 82,72,000 ), which is obviously a large sum of money for the majority of us. Although it appears likely that most courses will cost significantly less than this amount, this will depend on the real expenses associated with offering the courses. Less crowded classes with a single professor will cost more than those with many students and several professors. Read How to Pick a College or University Abroad for Higher Education Exceptions to the tuition payment requirement The new regulations for paying tuition at Norwegian colleges are aimed at immigrants from all of the Americas, Asia, Oceania, and Africa who have no familial ties to Norway or the EU. Some groups will, however, no longer be expected to pay tuition at Norwegian universities in the future. The following groups will continue to receive free tuition at Norwegian universities: Norwegian nationals individuals from EU or EEA nations students who take part in programs for international exchange students every person who participates in the Norwegian National Insurance Scheme. Therefore, it will mostly need tuition for foreigners seeking a free university education who have no connection to Norway. The government presently pays the equivalent of one student's tuition to the institutions, as they clearly could not function without it. Read Best Countries for Bachelor's Degree in 2023 Will this modification last forever? The government presented its proposed annual national budget for 2023 on October 6, along with the news of the new additional foreign student tuition. Even though it's still not final and can still be subject to discussion and negotiation through December 15, it appears doubtful that this will alter before the announcement of the nation's ultimate budget. Currently, there are a lot of uncertainties about this new policy, and many overseas students who are pursuing degrees are worried. Read Studying Abroad: Major Pros and Cons You Need to Consider We don't yet know whether or not the move will have an impact on students who have already started their studies in Norway. Although it hasn't been confirmed, there are reports that foreign students who have already been admitted to the university would be able to complete their degrees without paying. We currently only have to wait and watch how everything turns out. In the months to come, especially as college applications season approaches in the summer of 2023, we will undoubtedly learn more. Read SoP for Higher Studies: How to write an unfailing Statement of Purpose
European countries are steadily becoming a hub for higher education over the last decade. World-class education, affordable tuition, prospective career, and several other reasons can be named for the influx of international students in Europe. Among them, Belgium happens to be one of the top choices. Let’s take a look at the higher education opportunities in Belgium for international students and explore how Bangladeshi students can be a part of it. Why Study in Belgium? Starting with the beautiful scenic countryside, luscious gorges, and canals, Belgium is a country to behold for its natural beauty. The scenic nature of Belgium, a central European country, combined with the cosmopolitan cities has been a great destination for many international students to pursue bachelor, master's, or Ph.D. In addition to that, Belgium offers some of the best living standards in Europe. The cities are robust with cultural affluence. The mix of the Flanders and the Wallonia culture has made the country even more diverse within itself. Read Study in Denmark: Costs, opportunities for international students On the educational end, the top 10 universities in Belgium rank in the top 800 universities globally according to the QS ranking of 2022. The programs offered by the top Belgium universities are also diverse. Study programs range from pure science, engineering, life sciences, and social science to medicine. Higher Study Opportunity in Belgium for International Students Belgium offers all three of the higher education options – bachelor, master, and Ph.D. Bachelors generally run for 3 to 4 years, masters for 1 or 2 years, and Ph.D. for 3 to 4 years maximum. However, there’s a caveat with the bachelor’s opportunities. Most of the courses and programs on the undergraduate level are offered in Dutch. Compared to that, very few English-taught programs are available at the undergraduate level. This means you’ll either have to learn the language or search very hard for your desired program. Read Cheapest countries for Bangladeshi students for higher studies In contrast, most of the master's and Ph.D. programs are offered in English. So, a standardized English proficiency is enough to get going in these programs. Can International Students Study Bachelor in Belgium? Bachelors in Belgium aren’t all that common for international students mainly because of the language requirement. But there are still ample opportunities and many students avail themselves with some extra effort to learn the language first. The process of application for bachelor's, master, and Ph.D. are more or less the same. However, there are certain distinctions as you will see in each part. Read SoP for Higher Studies: How to write an unfailing Statement of Purpose? The admission window for foreign students in Belgium is only open for fall. Belgium does not offer admission to international students in Spring. The general requirements for documents include – - Educational certificate and Transcripts - Two LORs - Statement of Purpose/ Motivation Letter - IELTS/TOEFL - Extra-Curricular Activities (If Applicable) - Awards and Achievements Certificates (If Applicable). Read Student Loans in Bangladesh: Banks Offering Education Loans for Higher Studies Students will require a legalized copy of each of the documents that they submit online or send through traditional mail to the university. To legalize the documents, a student will need to get their documents attested by their respective educational institution, Education Board, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Belgian Consulate in their respective country. The process may be cumbersome but Belgian institutes do not accept any application that hasn’t been legalized in the above manner. The application process usually starts a year before the prospective entry date. Depending on the university, a student will have to pay 30 to 100 euros or 3,045 BDT or 10,115 BDT as an application fee (1 EUR = 101 BDT). Read Higher Study in China: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students Tuition also isn’t free in Belgium. Undergraduate courses can run anywhere between 950 euros to 6000 euros or 96,436 BDT to 6,09,072 BDT per year depending on the program. Scope for International Students to Study Masters in Belgium Master in Belgium is the more popular choice for international students as it doesn’t require Dutch and neither does it require specialization in academia for Ph.D. Generally, a master's program runs for about 2 years with some specified courses having a 1-year degree offering. Prospective student needs to complete at least 16 years of formal education in their respective country to be eligible for a master's in Belgium. Read Higher Study in Germany: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi and Other International Students A student can bypass the IELTS/TOEFL requirement if their Medium of Instruction or MOI at the undergraduate level was English. The English-taught programs are required to be certified by the respective universities. In addition to the document requirements mentioned in the bachelor's section, a student might have to submit a research plan for their intended program. The average tuition fees for master's degrees are the same as bachelor's and are calculated on an annual basis. Ph.D. in Belgium We have already talked about how Belgium is basically divided between Flanders and Wallonia. Universities in Belgium are also classified between Flemmish and Walloon universities. Each of the two has a different fee structure for their Ph.D. program. Read Study in Norway: Scholarship Opportunities for International Students including Bangladesh Flemmish universities charges around 474 euro or 48,116 BDT each for the first and last year of a Ph.D., nothing in between. On the other hand, Walloon universities has an initial first-year tuition fee of around 835 euros or 84,762 BDT with a subsequent fee of around 50 euros or 5075 BDT per consecutive year. To get admission into Belgian Ph.D. programs, prospective candidates need to have a good research track record and experience in academia. Read Study in Australia: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students Scholarship Opportunities in Belgium Belgian universities have generous scholarship opportunities depending on the universities. Most of these scholarships are available after enrollment. In addition to university-specific scholarships, there are other centralized scholarship opportunities as well. These include – 1. Belgian Technical Cooperation Scholarships 2. The Science@Leuven Scholarships 3. The Erasmus Mundus Joint Masters 4. Innoviris Scholarship 5. Master Mind Scholarship 6. The VLIR-UOS Training and Master Scholarship 7. University of Ghent Doctoral Fund 8. Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF) Scholarship 9. FRS-FNRS Scholarship Cost of Living in Belgium As Belgium is divided distinctly into two regions, the cost of living somewhat differs depending on where your university is located or where the student is living. Generally, the cost of living is around 750 euros to 950 euros or 76,134 BDT to 96,436 BDT in places away from the capital. Read Study in France: Scholarship Opportunities and Overview for Bangladeshi Students Living costs can go up as high as 1200 euros or 1,21,814 BDT if you live in and around Brussels. But that’s the highest cap in terms of living cost in Belgium and most students can easily get by under 1000 euros. Job Opportunities in Belgium There are ample job opportunities for foreign graduates in Belgium. The country recently allowed all foreign students to have orientation time of up to one year for job search after graduation. This will allow the foreign student unlimited access to the Belgian job market and secure a desired career track after graduation. After securing a job, students will need to get the Combined Residence Permit to stay and work in Belgium. Read Study in the Netherlands: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students Final Words So far, we have discussed how students from Bangladesh can do bachelor's, master's, or PhDs in Belgium. Higher study in Belgium is now more accessible and affordable than ever. As the country has a growing old-age population, it is reforming policies to attract non-EU talents to the country and potentially secure jobs in the Belgian market. This is a golden opportunity for prospective students to utilize Belgium as a potential study destination and career hub in the long run.
Every year a huge number of students move abroad for the purpose of higher studies. Among these departing students, a significant percentage are undergraduate students. The prospect of better education, lifestyle, security, and potential career are some of the key drivers for the outbounds. Even several decades ago students only from financially well-off families could afford the high cost of education abroad. However, in recent years, students from middle and lower-middle-class families are also traveling abroad for higher studies. Scopes like Scholarships, low tuition fees, or tuition-free waivers have opened the door for many students to study in overseas countries. With that in mind, we focused on the best countries around the world to study bachelor degree. Read along if you’re planning on studying your undergraduate abroad. Read Top European Countries Offering Free Education for International Students Top 7 Countries for Undergraduate Studies in 2023 The countries in this list are in no particular order. Each country has its own offerings and requirements. So rather than looking at a countdown, go for the countries that best match your needs and abilities. Almost every country mentioned in this list requires at least 12 years of formal education unless mentioned otherwise. United States of America The first country on the list is the land of the free and American Dreams. Currently, about 1 Million international students are studying in the USA. A large share of these students is pursuing their bachelor's in different branches like Business, Data Analytics, Engineering, and other STEM opportunities. The primary requirement for admission to a bachelor's program in the USA is to clear the SAT. After that, a student can choose their desired stream based on application and offer letters. The average tuition fee per year is $ 45,000 or 45,41,481 BDT (1 USD = 100.98 BDT). Read Cheapest countries for Bangladeshi students for higher studies However, there are a host of scholarships along with campus job opportunities. After graduation, the STEM OPT extension process allows students to get 1 whole year for job searching to settle in the USA. As a whole, the USA is an excellent destination for higher studies given the cosmopolitan nature of its cities. United Kingdom The UK is home to nearly half a million international students and half of them are enrolled in undergraduate courses. By volume, the UK houses 11% of the total international students across the globe in its multitude of colleges and universities. The country has been flourishing in education for several centuries now. It has always attracted students from all corners of the world because of the quality and global acceptance of a UK degree. Read Studying Abroad: Major Pros and Cons You Need to Consider The average tuition fee in the UK is relatively high compared to other European countries. Expect to pay anywhere between 11,000 euro or 10,70,763 BDT to 67,000 euro or 65,21,920 BDT per year depending on programs and streams. Living cost is also very high with an average starting at around 1000 euro or 99,340 BDT per month (1 Euro= 99.34 taka). However, the UK also offers a good number of scholarships at the undergraduate level. There are also ample part-time job opportunities with a secured career track after graduation. Read How to Pick a College or University Abroad for Higher Education Australia There has been a recent surge in Bangladeshi outbounds to Australia, especially at the undergraduate level. There are nearly 850,000 international students studying in Australia. A lion’s share of these students is studying at the bachelor's level. To apply to an Australian university, students will have to submit required scores at IELTS/TOEFL as proof of English proficiency. The other requirements depend on specific subject bases admission requirements. Business, science, management, and other STEM streams are popular choices for international students. Average tuition fee ranges from 20,000 to 45,000 AUD which is equivalent to 13,10,078 BDT to 29,47,676 BDT (1 AUD = 65.50 BDT). Read Study in Australia: Scholarship Opportunities for Bangladeshi Students In Australia, the overall living cost is around 20,000 AUD per year which can be managed through part-time work opportunities. After graduation, a student can easily settle in Australia if s/he can manage a full-time job relevant to his/her stream. Germany Are you looking for a country where standard education is offered at a low or no tuition fee? If yes, choose Germany. German Universities are known for their engineering stream majors as they are some of the best in the world. In recent years, Germany has become a prospective destination for bachelor's degrees for international students. The 16 states of Germany eliminated undergraduate tuition costs at all public German institutions in 2014. Therefore, both domestic and foreign undergraduates presently have access to free education at public institutions in Germany, with only a nominal fee per semester to cover administrative and other costs. Read IELTS vs TOEFL: Which is better for studying abroad? To study for a bachelor's in Germany, a student will need two things besides the standard requirements – IELTS/TOEFL score and German Language B2/C1 clearance. A bachelor's degree in Germany requires the student to finish at least 1 year of an undergraduate degree in their home country after the usual 12 years of schooling. Besides these, the requirements are international. Germany also requires a block account for tuition and living cost purposes. Currently, the amount is 10,332 euros (10,26,413 taka) which is subject to change. Every month, a portion of the money will be given back to the students for their living costs. However, students can easily manage part-time jobs once they settle in. Read IELTS Preparation: Best Online Free Resources, Mock Tests, and Guidelines for IELTS Academic and General However, private universities in Germany charge tuition fees. The average tuition fee is between 750 to 7500 euros or 74,507 to 74,50,731 BDT per semester (1 Euro= 99.34 taka). The living cost is also around 750 euros per month if you live in the city area. To know more about study opportunities in Germany, check out our detailed review. Denmark Those prospective bachelor's students who don’t want to show a lumpsum bank deposit or want to take a spouse with them can choose Denmark. This beautiful Schengen country allows students to reach Denmark by submitting tuition fees for the first semester only. Study opportunities in Denmark have been on the rise as the country now consistently ranks on top of the best higher study destinations in the world. Read IELTS Practice Tests: 7 Full Free IELTS Mock Tests to Take Online Like Germany, for admission to a bachelor's degree, Denmark requires the student to complete 13 years of education. So, Bangladeshi students must study for at least 1 year for an undergraduate degree in the home country in addition to the standard 12 years of education. Tuition fee ranges from 6000 euro or 5,84,052 BDT to 12,000 euros or 11,68,105 BDT per year depending on programs. Denmark has a low living cost between 600 euros (58,405 BDT) to 800 euros (77,873 BDT). There are also scopes for some scholarships for international students. Moreover, students get part-time work opportunities to support their education and living costs. Read TOEFL Preparation: Best Free Online Resources, Guidelines, and Mock Test Opportunities To know more about studying in Denmark, check out our comprehensive take on the country. Spain Spain is often termed the ever-sunshine country of Europe. The temperate climate, beautiful cities, and rich cultural history make Spain a lucrative destination for many. Students coming to Spain are mainly concentrated in the Business and Arts stream. But recently, the country is pushing STEM education for international students with generous offers. The best thing about bachelor's in Spain is the world-class education and relatively cheaper tuition fees. A non-EU student needs to pay about 650 to 2100 euros per year for a bachelor's program depending on the stream. The amount roughly translates to about 63,271 to 2,04,481 BDT (1 EUR = 97.82 BDT). Read TOEFL Practice Tests: 7 Full Free TOEFL Mock Tests to Take Online The living cost is also moderate. Students can easily get by with around 650 to 800 euros almost anywhere in Spain. Low living costs combined with high minimum wage and work opportunities for students easily make Spain a top choice for a bachelor's abroad. Italy The country of Neapolitan pizza and la Dolce Vita, Italy is truly one of the most beautiful countries in the world. From the rivers of Venice to the chapels of Rome, the country exudes culture and heritage unlike any other. The common streams for foreign students in Italy are mostly concentrated between fine arts and applied sciences. These streams are offered in almost all the universities and also have the most scholarship opportunities. Read SoP for Higher Studies: How to write an unfailing Statement of Purpose? The average tuition fee at a government university in Italy is around 1000 euros or 97,820 BDT per year. Combine that with an average 950 euro or 92,475 BDT living cost and you have a pretty sweet deal for yourself. Part-time jobs are abundant but it is capped at 20 hours per week. Even with that, a student will be easily able to support their living cost in any Italian city. To top it off, there are government and private scholarships at the bachelor's level making Italy another potential outbound destination. Final Words Many meritorious student in Bangladesh dream to study at a prestigious university abroad. Compared with master's and Ph.D. programs, there are fewer support and scholarship opportunities for international students in the bachelor's degree programs. However, the situation is now changing as more and more developed countries are offering scholarships and tuition fee waivers to prospective international students. Read What should Bangladeshi students pack and bring with them to Western Countries? The key here is to figure out which country aligns with personal interest as well as study stream. There is also the potential settlement aspect after graduation. So far, we have discussed the top countries for studying a bachelor's program abroad. All in all, the countries on this list are probably the best bet when it comes to quality education. Hope it helps!