The vaccine development for the COVID-19 has been moving at a record speed around the world. However, some companies have already seen success in less than a year. While some of the first world countries developed COVID vaccines, Russian did not lag behind. Therefore, the whole world was surprised when President Vladimir Putin approved the country’s first domestically developed vaccine Sputnik V in August 2020. Though many countries around the world were confused about the efficacy of Russian Vaccine Sputnik V, now 59 countries in the world approved this Coronavirus vaccine. Here we addressed some frequently asked questions about Sputnik V.
What is Sputnik V?
Sputnik V is Russia’s first approved COVID-19 vaccine. This vaccine entered limelight when Putin publicly approved it and stunned about the other countries who were still working to develop their vaccines.
Who invented this?
It was entirely developed and produced by the Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Moscow, a Russian medical research institute, and operated under the purview of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Sputnik V was funded by the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), which is widely known as Russia’s sovereign wealth fund.
What are the basics of Sputnik V?
Sputnik V was developed based on the common idea. Gamaleya researchers used the commonly known viruses that cause colds as their vaccine prototype. Subsequently, they worked with the coronavirus spike protein gene and added two separate adenovirus vectors in it, such as rAd5 and rAd26. Further, the researchers engineered them to invade cells without replication.
What is the working procedure of Sputnik V?
Sputnik V works in six easy steps. In the first step, it is injected into a person’s arm. After that, the adenoviruses vector gets into the cells and can create a bar of proteins on the cells’ surface. The cell then put the virus in a bubble and then an adenovirus moves towards the nucleus. Next, adenovirus inserts its DNA in the nucleus, and adenovirus makes copies of itself. Further, the cells can read the coronavirus spike protein gene and copy it into a molecule “called messenger RNA or mRNA.”
In the second step, mRNA leaves the nucleus and starts working on building spike proteins. The immune system recognizes the spike proteins. Afterward, the adenovirus excites the current immune system and switches them to the cell’s alarm system. Through the alarm system, Sputnik V makes the immune system respond strongly against the spike proteins.
In the third step, the system tries to spot the intruder. “When a vaccinated cell dies, the debris contains spike proteins and protein fragments.” Whenever such fragments are identified, a special kind of immune cell termed as, antigen-presenting cell absorbs those protein fragments.
In the fourth step, the process of creating antibodies works. Different immune cells named B cell may come across with the coronavirus spikes and lock the spike proteins. The B cells are then triggered through help from helper T cells and pour out antibodies.
Now the antibodies can work against the coronavirus spikes and work towards the destruction. Eventually, the antibody blocks the COVID-19 spikes and prevents infections.
If there is an infected cell in the body, the antigen-presenting cell calls an immune cell called a killer T cell to destroy any coronavirus cells.
How many doses of Sputnik V are needed?
Two doses of Sputnik V are enough to create the antibodies and fight the virus. However, the doses need to take 21 days apart, and both doses use the same procedure.
How many versions of Sputnik are available?
After the success of the Sputnik V vaccine, the researchers worked harder to find out a more effective vaccination program. Nevertheless, they came up with a newer version of the vaccine, which is called ‘Sputnik Light,’ which is a single shot vaccine and claimed 79% effectiveness.
How effective and safe is Sputnik V?
According to the interim results’ data, Sputnik V has a 91.6% success rate. Besides, the data also shows that the vaccine does not have any significant side effects and it is totally safe. However, some mild side effects were reported, which was normal compared to the other available vaccines in the world.
How much is Sputnik V?
Initially, the price is set at $10 internationally. However, Russia has already approved many countries of the world to manufacture the Sputnik V vaccine remotely. Hence, the price may fall in the future. The Sputnik Light may cost less than $10.
What is the storage procedure of this vaccine?
Sputnik V needs to store at 2-8 degrees Celsius. Therefore, it is safe to transport and stored in any region of the world. Besides, it also comes in freeze-dried powder which makes it easier to store.
How many countries approved Sputnik V?
Russia has gone beyond the border to promote its invention. According to the latest data, minimum of 60 countries have approved the Russian Coronavirus Vaccine Sputnik V. What is more? This vaccine is ready to serve around 3 billion people globally, which is nearly 40% of the worldwide population. Indian, Bangladesh, Italy, China, UAE are among the 60 countries.
Does Sputnik V work against mutant variants?
As soon as the new mutants emerged, Gamaleya’s researchers started working on that. A trial testing against the new mutants shows that the vaccine produces a strong result. However, it is not much effective against the South African variants but still works better than other vaccines.
How is Russian Vaccine Sputnik V different from the other COVID-19 vaccines?
Currently, there are at least eight COVID-19 vaccines available across the world. However, Russian COVID-19 Vaccine Sputnik V appears to be comparatively cheaper than other vaccines. Besides, the efficiency is relatively higher than other Covid vaccines. The newest Sputnik Light will certainly reduce the vaccination time length worldwide.